Geskiedenis Podcasts

Dumbarton - Geskiedenis

Dumbarton - Geskiedenis

Dumbarton

'N Provinsie en stad in Skotland.

(SwStr: t. 636; 1. 204 '; b. 29'; dr. 10 '; s. 10 k; a. 2 32
pdr., 2 12-pdr. hoe.)

Distel, 'n sywiel -stoomboot, is op 1 Junie 1864 deur Fort Jackson gevang terwyl hy die blokkade langs die kus van Noord -Carolina uitgevoer het; vir veroordeling na Boston gestuur, gekoop by die pryshof 20 Julie 1864, hernoem na Dumbarton; en in opdrag van 13 Augustus 1864, waarnemende vrywilliger luitenant H. Brown in bevel.

Dumbarton se eerste opdrag was om te soek na Raider CSS Tallahassee langs die Atlantiese kus. Daarna het sy by die North Atlantic Blockading Squadron by Beaufort, NC aangesluit en tot 6 Desember 1864 diens gedoen by die blokkade van Wilmington NC.

Nadat sy by Norfolk Navy Yard was, het Dumbarton van 17 Februarie tot 27 Maart 1865 as vlagskip van agteradmiraal W. Radford in die James River, VA, gedien. Sy was buite diens by Washington Navy Yard tot 11 November 1865 toe sy na New York Navy Yard en in gewone. Sy is 15 Oktober 1867 daar verkoop.


Geskiedenis van die tuine

In 1921 begin Mildred Bliss saam met die tuinier Beatrix Jones Farrand (1872–1959) om die tuin by Dumbarton Oaks te ontwerp. Die twee vroue het byna dertig jaar lank in noue samewerking gewerk om hul visie te bereik oor tuine en vergesigte, boorde en kombuistuine en 'n groot wildernis van weivelde en beboste paadjies. Hulle het ook saamgewerk aan die ontwerp en keuse van tuinornamente - banke, hekke, finials en beeldhouwerke.

Die oordrag van Dumbarton Oaks na Harvard Universiteit in 1940 het ongeveer sestien hektaar grond ingesluit, insluitend die boonste, meer formele tuine. Sewe-en-twintig hektaar, insluitend die meer naturalistiese wildernis, is aan die Amerikaanse regering geskenk om Dumbarton Oaks Park te skep. 'N Bykomende tien hektaar is verkoop om die Deense ambassade te bou.

In 1941, in afwagting van die onvermydelike veranderings wat die verskillende funksies van die tuin sou meebring, het Farrand begin skryf Plantboek om haar ontwerpvoornemens te definieer en gepaste onderhoudspraktyke voor te stel. Haar voorstelle vir rentmeesterskap bly vandag nog nuttig.

Na die geleidelike uittrede van Beatrix Farrand in die veertigerjare en haar dood in 1959, het ander landskapargitekte gewerk aan veranderinge aan die Dumbarton Oaks Garden. Dit sluit in Ruth Havey (1899–1980), Ralph E. Griswold (1894–1981) en Alden Hopkins (1905–1960). Die tuin is onderhou onder leiding van superintendente: William Gray van 1922 tot 1937, James Bryce van 1937 tot 1948, Matthew Kearney van 1948 tot 1973, Donald Smith van 1973 tot 1992, Philip Page van 1992 tot 1996 en Gail Griffin van 1997 tot 2018, en Jonathan Kavalier van 2018 tot hede.


Wat Dumbarton familie rekords sal jy vind?

Daar is 793 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van Dumbarton. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan die Dumbarton-sensusrekords u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.

Daar is 105 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van Dumbarton. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die aankoms- en vertrekhawe.

Daar is 61 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van Dumbarton. Vir die veterane onder u voorouers in Dumbarton, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle gedien het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.

Daar is 793 sensusrekords beskikbaar vir die van Dumbarton. Soos 'n venster in hul daaglikse lewe, kan die Dumbarton-sensusrekords u vertel waar en hoe u voorouers gewerk het, hul opvoedingsvlak, veteraanstatus en meer.

Daar is 105 immigrasierekords beskikbaar vir die van Dumbarton. Passasierslyste is u kaartjie om te weet wanneer u voorouers in die VSA aangekom het en hoe hulle die reis onderneem het - van die skeepsnaam tot die aankoms- en vertrekhawe.

Daar is 61 militêre rekords beskikbaar vir die van Dumbarton. Vir die veterane onder u voorouers in Dumbarton, bied militêre versamelings insigte oor waar en wanneer hulle gedien het, en selfs fisiese beskrywings.


At the Mercy of Foreign Invaders - The Rock Subdued

Die Britte en die Pikte was rusteloos en het hulle nooit ten volle aan die Romeinse heerskappy onderwerp nie. Toe die Romeinse era in Brittanje tot 'n einde gekom het, omstreeks 400 nC, het Alcluith weer in Brittoniese hande geval. Voorheen was hierdie plek die setel van 'n lang reeks konings van die Strathclyde -Britte. Hierdie opeenvolgende geslagte Britte het die ligging altyd 'Dunbritton' genoem, wat 'die fort van die Britte' beteken.

In ongeveer 756 nC het die kasteel weer die agtergrond geword vir hewige optrede toe die koning Eadgbert van Northumberland, vergesel van die koning Uengust van die Pikte, die Dumbarton -kasteel beleër, dit verower en weer 'n paar dae later verloor. Die kasteel verskyn weer in die historiese argiewe in 782 nC, toe dit op 1 Januarie verbrand en geplunder is, hoewel deur die rekeninge nie genoem word nie.

In die daaropvolgende dekades is die Alcluith-nedersetting hervestig, en dit was steeds die middelpunt van die koninkryk Alclud. Maar in 872 is 'n nuwe donker bladsy in sy geskiedenis geskryf. In daardie jaar beleër 'n mag van Deense en Noorse Vikings, gebaseer in Ierland, die kasteel onder leiding van hul klein Viking -konings Ivar Beinlaus die kreupeles (Ímar) ​​en Óláfr die Blanke (Amlaíb). Die beleg het vier maande geduur. Toe die watertoevoer van die kasteel uiteindelik opraak, val die kasteel in die hande van Viking. Die Vikings het dit heeltemal afgedank en vernietig en 'n magdom gevangenes saamgeneem. Na hierdie afdanking word die Dumbarton -kasteel eers weer in die 13de eeu in die argiewe genoem.

Die meeste van die strukture wat vandag bestaan, is later bygevoeg terwyl die oorspronklike verdediging van die ystertydperk skaars oorleef het. Die 14de eeu Portcullis Arch (aan die linkerkant) is die oudste struktuur wat nog oorleef het op Dumbarton Rock. (Links: Lairich Rig / CC BY-2.0 Regs: Tom Parnell / CC BY-SA 4.0 )

Die Dumbarton -kasteel wat ons vandag kan sien, is amper heeltemal van die middeleeuse konstruksie. Die oorspronklike, ystertydperk -verdediging is argeologies opgegrawe en gedokumenteer. Die middeleeuse vestings is eenvoudig bo die oorspronklike vestings gebou of opgegradeer. Boonop is sommige van die vroegste middeleeuse elemente van die kasteelkompleks deur die eeue vernietig. Die oudste oorlewende segmente is die Portcullis -boog en die waghuis. Die meeste ander geboue, soos die artillerie -verdedigingsplase, die goewerneur se huis, gevangenis en poeierblaaie, is later bygevoeg en kan herlei word in die 17de eeu. Dumbarton Rock, op wie se basis die kasteel staan, het twee merkbare pieke. Dit staan ​​bekend as die bek en die White Tower Crag.


Dumbarton - Geskiedenis

ROMEINE INVASON. — Toe die Romeine met hul oorwinnende leërs Caledonië, die land van die Pikte, binnekom, vind ons hulle historici in die beskrywing van die noordelike grense van hul verowerings, wat gereeld in 'n baie vroeë tydperk verwys na hierdie antieke stad, onder die naam van Alcluith of Alcluyd. Die Atticotti, 'n baie kragtige en gedugte stam, wat langs die noordelike oewer van die rivier die Clyde gewoon het, was sy destydse eienaars. Atticotti is 'n naam wat inwoners invoer langs die uiterste van die Caledoniese woud. Die afstammelinge van hierdie volk is nooit heeltemal onderdruk of verban uit hul jagveld deur hul Romeinse indringers nie. Ptolemeus, 'n Romeinse skrywer, sê dat die Gadeni, 'n ander stam van die oorspronklike inwoners, op die suidelike oewer van die Clyde gewoon het. Pinkerton, in sy ondersoek na die historiese oudhede van Skotland, beweer sonder twyfel dat die Atticotti -stam die ou inwoners van Dumbartonshire was, en hy haal Richard van Cirencester aan, 'n antieke historikus, wat dit bevestig. (Sien boek I. hoofstuk 6.) Die vertaling van die gedeelte uit die oorspronklike Latyn van Richard is soos volg: 'n nasie wat daarna en daarna formidabel vir die hele Brittanje was. Hier is 'n groot meer (Lochlomond) gesien, waarvan die naam vroeër Lyncalidor was naby die monding waarvan die stad Aicluith, gestig deur die Romeine, 'n naam gegee het wat dit 'n kort tydjie vroeër deur die Romeinse generaal Theodosius, die provinsie wat deur die barbare beset is, herower. Hiermee kon geen stad vergelyk word nie, want dit het tot die laaste die aanvalle van die Romeinse vyand verduur nadat die ander omliggende provinsies heeltemal onderwerp is. & Quot

Die stad Alcluith was dus in die onmiddellike omgewing geleë en vorm die aangename en heerlike westelike voorstad van die uitgebreide Romeinse muur wat tussen die Clyde en die Forth opgerig is. Alhoewel dit 'n barbaarse provinsie was, wil dit voorkom asof dit aanvanklik nobel geweier het om die wrede treurspel van 'n vreemde vyand te ondergaan, maar uiteindelik verower is. Dit het egter geminag om sy vyande sytak te word, en het weer in opstand gekom uit die Romeinse juk. Kort daarna is dit weer herwin deur die seëvierende Romeinse soldate, onder leiding van hul onverskrokke generaal Theodosius. Uit antieke Romeinse en ander outeurs blyk dit dat hierdie 'stad van Alcluith' (want so is dit genoem) gestig en gebou is deur hierdie Romeinse generaal.

In die jaar 367 stuur die Romeinse keiser Valentinianus die Eerste, Theodosius, sy generaal weer na Brittanje teen die Pikte en Skotte, wat hulle nie net afgeweer het nie, maar ook hul grond tussen die mure beslag gelê en in 'n provinsie opgerig het wat die naam van die keiser Valencia. Hy versterk sy noordelike en westelike grense, tussen die Clyde en die Forth, en bou in 368 Theodosia of Alcluith as 'n vesting en grensstad. Daarom is hierdie plek daarna deur Bede en ander historici beskou as die groot grens tussen die Britte en die Pikte. (Sien Richard, boek I. hoofstuk 7.)

Die afstammelinge van die Atticotti -stam het lankal die noordelike grense en oewers van die Clyde bewoon. Na baie eeue van oorlog en talle konflikte met ander stamme, wat hulle baie aantreklik gemaak het vir hul aantreklike land, was hulle baie verdwaal, maar hulle het nog steeds in hul ou domeine gebly by die afsterwe van Bede, 'n monnikse historikus, en wat in die jaar gesterf het 734. Hulle word nog steeds erken as 'n aparte en aparte volk, selfs vir 'n paar eeue daarna.

Die Romeine het Brittanje vrywillig verlaat ongeveer 409 na die Christelike era. Die Britte het egter omstreeks die jaar 421 hul hulp aangevra teen die Pikte en Skotte. Die Romeinse leër het opgedaag en die vyand afgeweer en die Britte op die opmars tussen die Clyde en die Forth 'n turfmuur of muur laat bou, aangesien die voormalige huil heeltemal neergegooi is. Bode gee 'n baie duidelike en klein beskrywing van hierdie muur (afdeling I., hoofstuk 12), wat uit die omgewing van die stad Alcluith na 'n plek ongeveer twee myl wes van Abercorn, aan die suidelike oewer, bereik. van die Forth, genaamd Cairn-in. Die Romeinse legioene wat gebruik is om dit op te rig, was die tweede, die sesde en die twintigste, en drie legioene, wanneer dit klaar was, ses en dertigduisend man sou beloop. .

Die enigste oorblyfsels van hierdie muur sny die gemeentes Kilsyth en New Kilpatrick, en is te sien by Dunglass op die rand van die Clyde. Daar is ook 'n brug van twee boë in die dorpie Duntocher. Hierdie ou relieke is nou meer as 1400 jaar oud. Hierdie brug het baie vervalle geraak, maar is verbeter en herstel onder leiding, en ten koste van wyle Lord Blantyre, wat die oorspronklike inskripsie, wat op 'n groot klip in die gebou geplaas is, herstel het. daaraan, ter herdenking van sy lofwaardige smaak en ywer vir klassieke oudhede. Die opskrif is in Latyn. Die Engelse vertaling loop so:-& quot Hierdie brug is gebou onder die vaandel van keiser Titus Elius Antoninus Hadrianus Augustus, vader van sy land, deur Quintus Lollius Urbicus, sy luitenant: dit was byna verwoestend, dit is herstel deur Lord Blantyre, in die jaar van onse Heer 1772. & quot

Die volgende beskrywing van die ou Caledoniërs word gegee deur Dio, 'n Romeinse historikus op die tydstip toe Severus die Romeinse keiser hulle land in 183 binnegeval het: dit sal baie treffend en interessant gevind word.

Hy sê — & quot; Van die barbaarse Britte is daar twee groot nasies, die Caledoni en die M genoem

eet vir die res word algemeen hierin verstaan. Die Maatte woon naby die groot muur wat die eiland in twee dele verdeel wat die Caledoniërs buite hulle bewoon. Hulle beskik albei oor ruwe en droë berge en woestynvlaktes vol moerasse. Hulle het geen kastele of dorpe nie, en hulle bewerk ook nie die grond nie, maar leef hoofsaaklik van hul kuddes en van hul jag, en van die vrugte van sommige bome. Hulle eet geen vis nie, alhoewel baie volop. Hulle woon in onbeskofte tente, redelik kaal en sonder bosse. Vroue wat hulle gemeen het, en maak al hul kinders gemeen. Hulle algemene regeringsvorm is demokraties. Hulle is verslaaf aan roof, baklei in motors en het baie klein perde. Hulle infanterie is baie vinnig om te hardloop, en ook merkwaardig vir vrymoedigheid en fermheid om 'n vyand te trotseer. Hul wapenrusting bestaan ​​uit 'n skild en 'n kort spies, aan die onderkant 'n groot appel, waarvan die geluid, as dit getref word, dikwels 'n vyand skrik: hulle het ook dolk. Hulle kan hongersnood, koue en allerhande arbeid opdoen, want hulle sal selfs vir baie dae in die moeras tot in die nek in water staan, en in die bos leef hulle op die bas en wortels van bome. By baie geleenthede berei hulle 'n sekere soort kos voor, waarvan hulle net 'n bietjie so groot soos 'n boontjie voel, en dat hulle lankal nie honger of dors voel nie. So is Brittanje, en so is die inwoners van die land wat so vrymoedig teen die Romeine opgeval het. Dat dit 'n eiland is, is al gewys. Die lengte is sewe duisend honderd twee en dertig stadia (agt stadia is ongeveer 'n Engelse myl). Sy grootste breedte tweeduisend driehonderd en tien stadions: sy minste breedte driehonderd stadions. Van hierdie eiland word nie veel minder nie as die helfte deur Severus verower, en hy, wat die geheel onder sy eie mag wou verminder, het Caledonië binnegegaan. In sy optog het hy met onuitspreeklike probleme te kampe gehad: om bosse af te kap, vlakke gelyk te maak, oewers oor moerasse op te rig en brûe oor riviere te bou, geen gevegte nie; die vyand het nooit in 'n geveg verskyn nie, maar hulle het raadsaam skape en osse in die pad gesit van ons troepe dat, terwyl ons soldate probeer het om hulle te gryp, en deur die bedrog in onreinhede getrek is, hulle makliker afgesny kon word. Die mere was eweneens vernietigend vir ons manne deur hulle te verdeel, sodat hulle in 'n hinderlaag geval het en terwyl hulle nie afgebreek kon word nie, maar deur ons eie leër gedood is, sodat hulle nie in die hande van die vyand sou val nie. As gevolg van hierdie oorsake het daar nie minder nie as vyftigduisend van ons troepe gesterf. Severus het egter nie eers opgehou om die uiterste deel van die eiland te bereik nie, toe hy die diversiteit van die sonloop en die lengte van die dag en nag in die somer en winter ywerig opmerk. Uiteindelik, nadat hy deur die grootste deel van die vyandige land gedra is (omdat hy oor die algemeen in 'n oop werpsel gedra is), keer hy terug na die vriendelike dele van die eiland, waar die noordelike barbaarse Britte gedwing is om 'n soort alliansie, op voorwaarde dat hulle 'n klein deel van hul land aan hulle moet toevertrou. & quot

Dio vertel dan dat Severus in 'n konferensie met die Caledoniërs byna deur sy seun Antoninus Caracalla vermoor is. Daarna voeg hy by: — & quot Hierna kom die felle Britte weer in opstand, waarop Severus, sy hele leër bymekaargemaak het, hulle beveel om die land binne te val en geen kwart te gee nie: herhaal hierdie uitwissende gedigte.

Laat niemand u hande en wrede slagting vryspring nie
Selfs nie eers die baba nie, maar nog onskuldig in die baarmoeder. & Quot

Herodianus, 'n ander historikus, voeg by: "In die eerste plek sorg Severus om die moeras veilig te bedek met brûe, 80 sodat sy soldate op vaste grond kan staan ​​en veg." die oseaan en deur hierdie moerasse swem of waai die barbare self dikwels, sak hulle in die modder en is dikwels kaal, ongeag die slym, want hulle is onkundig oor die gebruik van klere. Hulle omring hul buik en nek met yster, en dink dit is 'n sieraad en 'n bewys van rykdom, net soos goud met ander barbare gedoen word. Boonop merk hulle hul liggame met verskillende prente en die vorms van 'n verskeidenheid diere, omdat hulle dit nie self beklee nie, ten minste moet hulle die skilderye van hul liggame bedek, maar dit is 'n oorlogsugtige volk en verheug hulle oor die slag. Hulle arms bestaan ​​uit 'n smal skild en lans, met 'n swaard wat teen hul naakte liggame slaan. Hulle is byna heeltemal onbekend met die gebruik van 'n pos of 'n helm, en dink in die verbygaan hierdie belemmerings. deur hulle moerasse, wat oor die algemeen bedek is met dampe, en donker met uitasemings. & quot

Solinus, 'n ander Romeinse historikus, (hoofstuk 25,) sê —. & quotDie Caledoniërs en Britte is wreed en oorlogsugtig. Na die geveg vlek die oorwinnaars hul gesig met die bloed van hul geslagte vyande. As 'n vrou van 'n man-kind gebore word, word sy heel eerste kos op die swaard van haar man geplaas en saggies met die punt van die wapen in sy mondjie geplaas, terwyl die liefdevolle moeder haar geloftes ernstig aflê dat haar seun mag die dood nie ontmoet nie, maar in die slagveld en in die wapen. & quot

Nadat ek u 'n outentieke beskrywing gegee het, deur die Romeinse skrywers, van ons afgeleë voorouers, in hul woeste toestand en hul onbeskofte oorlogsagtige voorkoms, laat ek my nou 'n baie kort uittreksel byvoeg oor hul growwe afgodery en wrede aanbidding.

Sammes, 'n antieke historikus, in sy oudhede van Brittanje, merk op dat die inboorlinge hulde gebring het aan die afgod Rugyvith, wat sewe gesigte gehad het na die afgod Porevith, met vyf koppe en aan Porenuth, met vier gesigte wat op sy kop betrekking het, en een gesig na sy bors. & quot (Bladsy 454.) Hierdie skrywer noem, onder andere, dat hulle mense aan hul afgode geoffer het. "Hulle het gemaak," sê hy, & quot; standbeeld of beeld van 'n man met groot afmetings, wie se ledemate bestaan ​​het uit takkies wat saamgeweef is na die manier van mandjie werk wat hulle met lewende mense gevul het, en dit dan aan die brand gesteek en in die vlamme verteer . & quot (Bladsy 104.)

Dit lyk asof die Caledoniërs, Skotte en Pikte op maniere en wreedheid op mekaar gelyk het en hierdie laaste eienskap sonder die moeite van die Romeinse koloniste uitgeoefen het. Hierdie nasies het hul ruige en gematteerde hare dikwels omskep in 'n soort natuurlike kopdress wat as helm of masker gedien is, soos nodig geag. Hulle huise was oor die algemeen gemaak van watels, of in meer gevaarlike tye het hulle onder die grond ingegrawe in lang, kronkelende opgrawings, waarvan sommige nog steeds bestaan, en die idee blykbaar deur 'n konyn-warren voorgestel te word. Selfs oor hierdie wilde mense, in 'n land wat net so wreed soos hulle was, het die son van geregtigheid opgekom met genesing onder sy vlerke. & Quot

Goeie manne, soos Columba en sy volgelinge, op wie die naam van & quotsaint & quot (wat dan nie in bygelowige sin gebruik is nie) regverdig was, en aan wie die lewe en die plesier van hierdie wêreld niks was nie, sodat hulle dit maar kon noem dat hulle vergaan sondaars om die evangelie te omhels, en sulke toegewyde mans het onder goddelike genade op edel wyse onderneem in die gevaarlike taak om hierdie onkundige wreedhede in die sublieme waarhede van die Christendom te verlig.

Ons het nou vir ons lesers 'n kort skets voorgelê van wat ons geboorteland oorspronklik in vervloë eeue was, en het hulle reeds goed ingeligte gedagtes voorberei op die vroeë geskiedenis van ons eie gunsteling plek waar ons onbeskofte Atticotti-voorvaders die bosse en woestyne in alle die wildheid van hul onbeskaafde gewoontes.

Hoe moet ons nou met opregte gelukwensing die wonderlike en verstommende veranderinge wat in ons gelukkige land plaasgevind het sedert die eerste aanbreek van die beskawing, en veral sedert die helder son van die Christendom, opgekom en geskyn het op die Britse eilande. Laat ons daarom saamgaan om die geseënde evangelie aan ander woeste en afgodiese nasies oor te dra, soos spoedig aan ons voorvaders gedoen is. Na die aanbreek van die Christelike era.

DUMBARTON. — Dit lyk asof die naam van hierdie stad deur die verloop van eeue verskeie veranderings ondergaan het. Dit lyk asof dit nou saamhang met die van sy romantiese rots en kasteel, wat in die onmiddellike omgewing staan. Baie ou skrywers het aangeneem dat dit die Baiclutha van Ossian was, wat in die vierde eeu geskryf het waarvan die val so pragtig beskryf word deur Carthon, sy destydse eienaar. Ek het die mure van Balclutha gesien, maar hulle was verlate. Die vuur het in die sale weerklink, en die stem van die mense word nie meer gehoor nie. Die stroom van Clutha is van die plek verwyder deur die val van die mure. Die distel skud daar sy eensame kop. Die jakkals kyk uit die venster uit die ranggras van die mure om sy kop. Woes is die woning van Moina stilte is in die huis van haar vaders. Ek kom, sê die groot Classamor, in my grensskip, na die torings van Balclutha. Die wind het agter my seile gebrul, en die strome van Clutla het my vaartuig met 'n donker boesem ontvang. & Quot (Ossian se gedigte, vol. I. Bl. 78-80.)

Die vooraanstaande vesting onder wie se beskerming die stad vir ewig veilig gebly het, blyk oorspronklik naam te hê .__ Alcluyd of Alcluith Al, in Wallies, beteken Rock. Petracloet beteken die Rots van Clyde. Dit was vanaf 'n baie afgeleë tyd die koninklike setel of woning van 'n lang opeenvolging van antieke konings van die Strathclyde -Britte, wat voorheen regeer het binne die mure van die kasteel of binne die stadsdele. Chalmers, in sy koerant, sê: & quot Dat daar in 'n baie vroeë tyd 'n kerk was, wat die antieke setel van die Reguli van die Strathclyde -Britte was. & Quot Dit is meer as waarskynlik dat hierdie kerk die kerk was wat veronderstel was om gestig te word deur Columba, en waarna onmiddellik verwys sal word.

Adomnan, wat in die jaar 679 tot Abt van Ione, of Icolumbkill, verkies is, het die Life of Saint Columba in drie boeke geskryf. In die eerste boek van die manuskripbundels wat in die Advocates 'Library in Edinburgh voorkom, loop die veertiende hoofstuk so: & quotA profesie van die heilige man (wat St. Columba beteken) aangaande koning Roderick, die seun van Totail, wat in Petracloethe geheers het , of die Rots van die Clyde. & quot Hierdie koning word gesê dat hy 'n baie vrygewige monarg was, en is baie geprys deur sy tydgenote. Hy word deur sommige skrywers aangewys as & quotRhyd-derech-hael ,, die oorvloedige Koning van die Britte op die Cluyd. & Quot

"Die daaropvolgende geslagte van die oorspronklike Britte," sê Camden, 'n vroeë skrywer, en noem hierdie stad Dunbritton, of die Fort van die Britte. . (Soos aangehaal in Chalmers's Caledonia, vol. Iii, bl. 856.)

Die jaar 756 word gesê deur iloveden en Camden, wat na hom geskryf het, die tydperk van die verowering van Alcluith of Dunbritton was deur Eadgbert, koning van Northumberland, en Uengust, koning van die Pikte, wat met hul gesamentlike magte die kasteel beleër het. , en dit tot so 'n desperate uiterste gebring dat dit deur komposisie aan hulle weergegee is. Die terme van oorgawe sou blykbaar die wees van huldeblyk.

In 782 is Alcluyd op 1 Januarie in as gelê, maar deur wie verskyn dit nie, aangesien die geskiedenis nie die name van die vernietigende indringers opneem nie.

Dit is weer beleër negentig jaar alter, nl. in die jaar 872, deur die Dene en Noorweërs, onder Olive en Ivar, hul klein konings wat dit, nadat hy dit vier maande lank beset het, uiteindelik vernietig het. Daar was 'n tradisie omtrent hierdie tyd dat die wolke gedurende hierdie tydperk sewe dae lank bloed gereën het. dae oor die hele Brittanje, en dat selfs melk, kaas en botter in bloed verander is.

Hierdie antieke stad lyk op 'n baie vroeë tydperk die koninklike woning en setel van die konings van die Strathclyde -Britte, en die teater van hul bloedige oorloë en konflikte met ander onbeskofte stamme en nasies. Rhyd-derech-hael, die Bountiful, het 'n geveg gevoer met twee van sy naburige kleinprinse — Guendolaw en Aedan, wat albei in opstand gekom het uit hul trou aan sy troon. Guendolaw, wat in hierdie geveg geval het, was 'n warm beskermheer van "Merlin the Wild", 'n inheemse digter van en wat in die algemeen by Alcluith gewoon het, van wie die leser byeens sal hoor. Roderick, soos vroeër opgemerk, was 'n monarg wat so vrygewig was dat hy die bynaam & quotHael & quot by sy naam laat dra, wat liberaal, oorvloedig beteken, en hy was so in al sy woorde en dade, waarvoor hy groot lof en lof was. (Sien Pinkerton's Antiquities of Scotland.)

In die Life of Gildas, uitgegee deur Mabilon, 'n Franse skrywer, verklaar die skrywer dat Gildas aan die begin van die vyfde eeu in Aleluith gebore is en dat sy vader 'n koning van die land was, en opgevolg is deur sy oudste seun, Hoel. Hy veronderstel dat die koninkryk van die Strathclyde -Britte Dumbartonshire, Renfrewshire en die boonste deel van Lanarkshire ingesluit het en dat dit oor die hele Valentia van die Romeine gestrek het, wat ongeveer tagtig kilometer lank en veertig breed was. Theodosia of Aicluith word algemeen beskou as die hoofstad in die provinsie en sy sterk vesting, wat natuurlik ondeurdringbaar is, is van ver getoon, soos die Akropolis van Korinte, op die top van 'n hoë rots wat uit 'n gelyke vlakte styg. Dit het dus natuurlik die hoofstad van die koninkryk geword. Die volgende is 'n chronologiese lys van die ou konings wat in Alcluith oor die Strathclyde-Britte geheers het, volgens die annale van Ulster, soos aangehaal deur Pinkerton in sy oudhede van Skotland:-

1. Caunus, koning van Aicluith, het ongeveer 390 nC regeer.
2. Inwald regeer as koning van Strathclyde, in Alcluith, in die tyd van St. Ninnian, of ongeveer die jaar 412.
3. Morti Arthur regeer ongeveer 460 jaar.
4. Konstantyn regeer ongeveer die jaar 510.
5. Guendolaw regeer ongeveer die jaar 540.
6. Rodericus, Roderick of Rhyd-derech-hael, het in 560 geheers. [Jocelyn, 'n poppige monnik, van Furness, in Lancashire, wat in 1180 geskryf het, verklaar dat & quotLangueth & quot die naam van Roderick se koningin was.]
7. Urien regeer in 575.
8. Hoel, seun van Roderick, regeer ongeveer 585.
9. Morkin regeer in die jaar 590.
10. Guiret, koning van Aiclyde, sterf in die jaar 660.
11. Donal, seun van Owen, koning van Aicluith, sterf in die jaar 693.
12. Bile, koning van die Britte van Strathcluyd, sterf in die jaar 724.
13. Artga, koning van die Britte van Strathcluyd, is in 874 deur Konstantyn, tweede koning van die Pikte, vermoor.
14. Dunwallon, die laaste koning van die Britte van Strathcluyd, het in 972 na Rome gegaan en kort daarna daar gesterf.

Ek glo dat sommige van my lesers tot op hede nie eers kon dink dat ons knus burgh en sy omgewing 'n koninklike en gewyde grond is waarop 'n lang lys van ou konings geheers het nie en waar woeste krygers geveg en geval het. Ja, op 'n enkelvoudige rock is baie vreemde sanguinariese toneel uitgevoer, en as die klippe en die klank klinkend was, kon hulle baie 'n tragiese verhaal vertel van barbaarse wreedheid en wee, gepleeg in dae van duisternis lank gelede, sowel as in die meer verfynde tydperk van 'n latere ouderdom. Maar sonder om verder te moraliseer, gaan ons nou 'n lys op van historici aan wie ons ou stad en sy voorstede geboorte gegee het.

Daar word gesê dat die volgende ou skrywers en historici hul geboorteplek in Alcluith of in die onmiddellike omgewing gehad het:-

1ste. Saint Patrick is gebore in Nemthur, naby Aicluith of Dunbritton. (Nemthur is die Romeinse naam van Old Kilpatrick, 'n dorpie aan die noordelike oewer van die Clyde, naby die beëindiging van die ou Romeinse muur.) Sy eie naam Patricius blyk oorspronklik uit 'n Romeinse ekstraksie te wees. Hy is gebore ongeveer 400, toe die Romeinse leër Valentia besit het. Sommige historici het egter volhard dat hy in die stad Alcluith gebore is. (Sien Aikman's History of Scotland, vol. I. bl. 220 —nota.)

2d. Gildas Albanius, oftewel die Britse Gildas, is ongeveer 426 in Aicluith gebore. Sy vader Caunus was koning van die land, wat ook die vader was van Anuerin. Hierdie Gildas was 'n vroom monnik en historikus.

3d. Anuerin, broer van die laasgenoemde, was 'n digter. Sy gedigte is aan die einde van die sewentiende eeu vertaal en gepubliseer.

4de. Merlin Caledonius, of & quotMerlin the Wild, & quot was 'n boorling van Aicluith. Hierdie buitengewone persoonlikheid het floreer in die tyd van Roderick Hail, die oorvloedige koning van die Britte, en was dus 'n tydgenoot saam met Kentigern of Saint Mungo, wat die katedraalkerk van Glasgow opgerig het, byna 1300 jaar gelede, en wat ongeveer 670 jaar oud was. 'N Merkwaardige lewe van Merlin the Wild, in Latynse vers, deur Geofrey van Monmouth, bestaan ​​nog. Deur sy eiesoortige gewoontes en maniere, blootgestel aan kop en voete, met slegs 'n los stuk growwe doek of 'n ruige dier se vel om sy naakte liggaam en deur die algemeen in bos en grotte te leef, met ander eienaardighede daardie onbeskofte eeue die reputasie van 'n profeet. Die moderne inwoner van Dumbarton dink moontlik in verbeelding dat hy hom stadig sien stap oor die nou lang oorstroomde strate en paaie van antieke Aicluith, bedek met die onbeskaamde gevoelens van woeste lewe, met godsdienstige sentimente en stamme van inheemse poësie, wat waarskynlik die hoorders getref het. met eerbied en ontsag. John Fordun, wat sy geskiedenis van Skotland in 1420 geskryf het, het 'n lang verhaal oor Merlin the Wild. (Boek 3, p. 31, 32.) Verskeie bladsye in die gedigte van Merlin bewys duidelik dat sy geboorteplek Aicluith was, en dat sy geboorteland Caledonië was, die land van die Pikte. Guendolaw, 'n koning wat voorheen genoem is, was 'n warm beskermheer van Merlin the Wild.

Poësie is vroeg in die vroeë tyd deur die ou Skotte en Britte gekweek. Die volgende is 'n voorbeeld en die vertaling van twee strofes:-

& quot Maagd met die pragtige gesig, leer my verse:
U onthou hulle, hulle sal u trae ure mislei,
As u geliefde ver is en die jeug van u hart
Sal in u geheue verskyn.

Ons staan ​​saam op die grasperk toe
Die dogtertjie met die pragtige lokke en lieflike aangesig,
Omhels my met haar arms, huil bitterlik
En met linne witter as sneeu, sy
Vee die dik vallende trane uit haar stralende oë. & Quot

In the year 575, and during the reign of King Urien, there flourished in his courts these three famous bard., Taliesin, Anuerin, who has been already mentioned, and Lynarch-Ken. Specimens of their rude poetry have been published by the historian Evans. These are a few of our native ancient poets and writers who arose, flourished, and faded on our own soil, and whose names have been thus collected from the rubbish of antiquity, and snatched from the grave of oblivion, to which they were quickly descending.

As a proof that learning was much cultivated at a very early period in Scotland, the abbots, priors, and monks of Iona, and other seminaries, excelled much in literature. Mackinnon and Mackenzie, two of the famed Ionian abbots, have their names inscribed on their tomb-stones on that island. An abbess, whose remains are said to moulder side by side, is designed, "Ann, the daughter of Donald, the son of Charles." The inscription is in Latin and Gaelic, and is still quite legible, although executed with the rude chisel more than a thousand years ago.

The public was greatly interested in the preservation of Ions, as it was at one period the repository of most of the Scottish records. The Ionian library—if we can depend on the testimony of Boethius, who was first principal of Aberdeen college must have been invaluable. From that author we learn that Fergus Second, who assisted Alaric the Goth in the sacking of Rome, brought away a chest full of books, which he presented to the monastery of Ions. A small parcel of them was, in 1525, carried to Aberdeen, and great pains were taken to unfold and decipher them, but through great age very little of them could be read. The register and records of the island, however, were all written on parchment, and it is probable that they, along with more antique and valuable records, were all destroyed by the violent changes which took place at the Reformation, which, in many instances, was a war against history and science, as it was against idolatry and superstition. (See Pennant's Second Tour, page 167.) Genuine religion, science, and literature, were beyond a doubt nourished and cultivated in the fifth, sixth, and seventh centuries, by Saint Columba and his Ionian disciples, even to a considerable extent yet in the succeeding centuries there followed a dark historical night, when scarcely a glimmering star appeared. But even amidst the darkness of the middle ages there was always a faint twilight, like that auspicious gleam which in a summer's night fills up the interval between the setting and the rising sun. In Scotland not a native writer arose from the eighth till nearly the commencement of the thirteenth century. From 843 till 106 is the most obscure period of Scottish history, and is often denominated "the leaden age." Thus there was a long dark night previous to the dawn of a clearer day. Indeed, over all Europe, as is well known, the ninth and tenth centuries form the deepest gloom between ancient and modern day. In the eighth century obscure night closes in upon us but, in the twelfth and thirteenth, a new morning arises and shines onward to the bright effulgence of meridian day.

The terrors of war, during even the fifth and sixth centuries, drove the Christian Scots and Britons to seek refuge in the extremities of the island. From this period genuine religion began to decline in the country, and was fast approaching to a complete exit, when two circumstances, concomitant with the labours of Columba, contributed to its revival and establishment. Ethelbert, King of Kent, had married a Christian princess of the house of Clovis: in her marriage stipulations she had secured her right to maintain inviolate her religion. This event was a happy preparative to the mission which Gregory was induced to set on foot, from a circumstance which transpired some time before his elevation to the Pontificate. Walking in the market-place at Rome one day, he observed a number of youths exposed to sale: struck with their fine ruddy appearance, he asked their country being told they were Angles, he replied, "They might with propriety be called angels. It is a pity (added he) that the Prince of Darkness should hold so fair a prey." Inquiring further into their province, he was informed that they came from Dclii (that is, Northumberland): "Deiri! (replied he) that is happy they shall be snatched from God's wrath, and made heirs of mercy." Asking the name of their king, he was informed it was Ella: "Alleluia! (cried he) God's praises shall be sung in that country."

This association of ideas, however fanciful, produced considerable impression upon the mind of Gregory, and he offered himself as a missionary to Britain but the Roman Church at that time opposing his wishes, he declined to insist on the experiment. But it seems that Gregory lost not the impulse for soon after his consecration, he looked out some agents whom he thought fit to carry forward the grand design.

In the year 597, Gregory matured his plan, and sent over forty monks or missionaries, with one at their head named Austin, a man of very singular qualifications. After combating many difficulties and many fears, these holy men arrived in the dominions of Ethelbert, and laid before him the design of their embassy. The prince received them courteously, and appointed them a suitable place of abode in the isle of Thanet. After a little time they were admitted to an audience, and suffered to open more fully the great object of their mission. Austin proceeded to lay before the king the principal doctrines of the Christian faith, and zealously urged the monarch to embrace that glorious dispensation which revealed a kingdom eternal in the heavens. "Your speech and promises," said Ethelbert, "are fair but as they are novel and untried, I cannot yield my assent, and give up the principles so long embraced by my ancestors. You are at liberty, however, to continue here, without fear of molestation and as you have performed so great a journey, entirely, as it seems, for what you believe to be for our advantage, I will that you be furnished with every necessary supply, and permit you to hold forth the faith of your religion to my subjects." Ethelbert accordingly appointed them a mansion in the royal city Dorobernium, now called Canterbury. Thus settled, Austin and his colleagues, attended with the auspices of the queen, proceeded to discharge the great duties of Christian missionaries, and the effect was that many were prevailed on to renounce idolatry and to be baptised into the faith of Christ. Among these converts was the king himself, which acquisition contributed greatly to forward the Christian cause. Thus, after toiling through a long dismal night of superstitious and heathen darkness, and regions of the shadow of death, a beam of gospel day, as the morning spread upon the mountains, revives the fainting spirit. (See Sabines' Church History.)

The Dalriads, a colony of the ancient Scoti, from Ireland, settled in Argyllshire at an early period, and thus became next neighbours to the early Britons in Strathclyde. They latterly formed a mutual alliance, and protected each other for a long period although, in very early ages, their petty kings, with their respective navies, had many a deadly and sanguinary battle on the Firth of Clyde. The ancient Sooti were continually passing and repassing the firth in their rude shaped "shallops, curracha, and crearies," to annoy and molest the courageous Britons on their own shores. The promontory and lands of Argyll, as possessed by this early tribe, was anciently called Dalriada. It is a singular fact, that Jocelyn, a monkish historian, mentioned already, who wrote in the eleventh century, says, "that the city of Glasgow, in the early ages of antiquity, was called Cathures "—probably this was its Roman name-.– and it was then only a small village: it is now supposed to be the largest city of the Empire. During the Roman period, and long after their departure, the original inhabitants, viz. the Atticotti and Dairiad tribes, inhabited the whole country from Lochflne the Lilamonius of Richard, on the west to the eastward, beyond the river Leven, and bounded by the Longcraig and Dumbuck, which were the southern termination of the range of the Grampian Mountains, in the vicinity of the Roman wall. These two races, however, were latterly immerged into, and incorporated with, and, in the course of ages, became undistinguished from, the Picts and Britons.

ACCOUNT OF THE BRITONS.—Their boats were usually made of osiers interwoven and covered with skins of wild beasts, being about five feet long and three broad, as appears from the historians Solinus, Gildas, and Ninius. Their Dress.—Gildas mentions (chap. 15) the Picts and Britons as being partly clothed, or at least generally girt about the middle with a kind of cloth: this was in the fifth century. In the sixth century, when Saint Columba lived, Adomnan his biographer drops no hint whatever of dress. It appears that the Caledonians, like the ancient Germans, went almost naked. Roman writers sometimes mention them as being naked and, indeed, if we saw a savage with only a wild deer's skin thrown loosely over his shoulders, and the rest of his body quite uncovered, we would, like those writers, be inclined to call them naked. The primitive Celtic dress was only a skin loosely thrown over the shoulders, and a piece of coarse rude-made cloth tied round the middle. In the thirteenth century, however, the women among the ancient Scots were rather elegantly dressed. The bishop of Ross says, "that they were clothed with purple and embroidery of the most exquisite workmanship, with bracelets and necklaces on their arms and necks, so as to make a most graceful appearance."

FUNERAL RITES.—The bodies of the common people and of enemies were buried those of chiefs and kings burned, if opportunity allowed. When burned, the ashes were put into earthen urns, as was done among the Greeks and Romans.

AGE OF THE ANCIENT BRITONS.—"It is a very striking circumstance," says an early historian, "that the ancient Britons and Caledonians generally lived to a very great age-140 and 150—and many instances of some of them having lived to 160 years." This may be accounted for, in a great measure, by their having lived chiefly on the produce of the chase, and their drink being the pure unadulterated water of the running brook: in a word, they were real teetotalers.

SAINT COLUMBA.—Columba the apostle, as he has been called, of the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland, was the founder and first abbot of the famous monastery of Iona. Iona means "the Island of the Waves." It early became the light of the western world, whence savage nations derived the benefits of knowledge and the blessings of the Christian religion: it stands nine miles from Staffa, and is separated from the island of Mull by a small strait. In any other situation the remains of Iona would be consigned to neglect and oblivion but standing as it does the solitary monument of the religion and literature of past ages, its silent and ruined structures are, by the tourist and the traveller, contemplated with profound awe and veneration.

An account of the life of Columba was written in Latin by two of his successors, Cummin and Adomnan. The former wrote about sixty, and the latter about eighty-three years after his death. Their writings are often interspersed with marvellous details of visions and prophecies, to many of which the modern historian ought to pay little or no regard. Dr. Smith, late minister of Campbelton, wrote a history of the life of Columba, about the beginning of this century, from which some of the following short notices are gleaned:—We make these extracts from the life of this singular man, under the firm conviction and deep impression that the "College Bow" is an ancient Gothic vestige of one of Columba's religious and scientific seminaries and under whose benign influence many were erected, in the dark ages of the fifth and sixth centuries, in the west of Scotland, of which the Ionian was the principal and the origin. It is remarked by ancient writers, especially by Jocelyn, (chap. 89,) that Columba erected more than 300 churches, colleges, and monasteries, in Scotland and Ireland. Saint Constantine, one of his disciples, is said, by Fordun the historian, to have presided over the monastery of Govan, upon the Clyde and to have converted the people of Kintyre to the Christian faith, where he nobly suffered martyrdom. The college at Aicluith or Dumbarton is apparently of a very remote age, and most probably was founded by Columba, or some of his religious successors, under the auspices of Brudius the Seventh, a Pictish king, in 842, who, history says, erected the church and college of Lochleven. (See Pinkerton's Antiquities of Scotland.) In the chartularies of Lennox and Paisley our vicinity is expressly called Lochleven. (See charters of Lennox and Paisley.) The church, chapel, and adjoining hospital, which more modern historians refer to as being founded here by the Duchess of Albany and Countess of Lennox in the year 1450, relate to the Old Parish Church and steeple, &c. on the site of which the present new church and steeple were erected in the year 1811. With the authorities above referred to, and from the zealous labours of Columba and his followers to promulgate the pure gospel, and raise seminaries of religion and learning at an early period in Scotland, and from the apparent age of the "College Bow," we draw the unhesitating conclui. that it must have been reared in an early age by him or i some of his monastic Christian brethren of Iona. it is likely that Saint Cairan, who was cotemporary with Columba, superintended the College of Aicluith'as we find the fountain of our public wells, at Levengrove, called Saint Cheryes or Saint Cairan's Well. (See Burgh Records, 1709.) Saint Cairan was also, for a short time, coadjutor with Saint Constantine in presiding over the monastery at Govan.

Bode tells us expressly that Columba arrived at Iona when Brudius, a most powerful king, reigned over the Picts and it was in the ninth year of his reign and that he converted that nation and the Scots to the faith of Christ by his zealous preaching and example. The Ionian monastery and college was a very different society from the later Roman Catholic monkish institutions for although the Ionian brethren had certain rules, and might deem certain religious regulations necessary, yet their grand and primary design was, by communicating instruction, to train up others for the sacred work of the ministry. These societies, which sprung from them, became the foundation seminaries of the Church of Scotland. They lived, after the example of the venerable fathers and early Christian pastors, by the labour of their own hands.

Columba was originally a native of Ireland, descended from the royal family of that kingdom, and nearly allied to the kings of Scotland: he was born in the year 521: he laboured in the cause of the Saviour for many years in his native country, and was the means of diffusing the Gospel far and wide. Ireland had then, for a long time previously, enjoyed the light of the Gospel, while the Isles and northern parts of Scotland were still covered with heathen darkness, superstition, and idolatry. On these dismal regions Columba looked with a pitying eye, and resolved to become the apostle of the savage Western Isles. Accordingly, in the year 563, he set out from Ireland in a wicker boat covered with hides, accompanied by twelve of his followers and friends, and landed on the island of Iona. He was now in the forty-second year of his age, and required all the vigour of body and mind he possessed to encounter the very great difficulties which presented themselves. The barbarous state of the nation—the opposition of the priests and Druids—the situation of the country, wild, woody, mountainous, and infested with wild beasts—the austerity of his own manners, sometimes fasting for whole days, and even watching and praying for whole nights, were all against his philanthropic mission. He often denied himself the comforts and enjoyments of life. Even at his seventy-sixth year, in his various travellings, his bed was often the bare ground, and a stone his pillow. These were all circumstances very unfavourable in appearance to his making many proselytes. Columba was also primate, and superintended all the affairs of the Pictish, Scottish, and Irish churches, with all their dependencies, and was highly reverenced not only by the king of the Picts, but also by all the neighbouring princes, who courted his acquaintance, and liberally assisted him in all his expensive undertakings. Wherever he visited abroad he was received with the highest demonstration of respect and joy. Crowds attended him on the public highways, and to the places where he lodged at night the respective neighbourhoods sent stores of provisions of every kind to entertain him. When at home he was resorted to for aid and advice, as a physician of both soul and body, by vast multitudes of every rank and denomination: even the little Ionian islet, the place of his more perrnanent residence, was considered as peculiarly sacred and holy and to repose in the dust of it became for ages an object of ambition to kings, princes, and potentates. According to Buchanan the historian, forty-eight kings of Scotland, four of Ireland, and eight of Norway, were interred in Iona—in all sixty kings!! This monastery was perhaps the chief seminary of Christians at the time in Europe, and the famed nursery from which not only all the other monasteries, and above three hundred and eight churches which he himself had established, but also many of the neighbouring nations, were supplied with learned divines and able pastors. It must also be observed, that Columba had a very extraordinary share of address,.of personal accomplishments, and colloquial talents, when he so effectually recommended himself wherever he went, and gained such ascendancy over so many princes, as to be revered and patronised by them all, even when they were in a state of barbarism, and were seldom at peace amongst themselves. To his many other talents, accompanied with the most engaging manners and a cheerful countenance, was joined another very essential property in a preacher, a most powerful and commanding voice, which Adomnan says he could raise on occasions so as to resemble peals of thunder, and make it to be heard distinctly a mile's distance when he chanted psalms.

His natural endowments were highly cultivated by the best education which the times could afford and though we have no particular account transmitted to us of his studies, it would seem they were not entirely confined to the profession which he followed, but extended to the general circle of science. Such was his knowledge of physic that his cures were often considered as Ting partially miraculous.

But a still more striking part of Columba's character was his early, uniform, and strong spirit of deep piety. Devoted from his birth to the service of God, and evidently bent on the pursuit of holiness, he seems to have reached the goal before others think of starting in the race. Far from resting in any measure of sanctity acquired in early life, he laboured often to gain still higher and higher degrees of it even to his latest day.

Next to the salvation of souls, the object which most engaged the heart of Columba was charity. Saint Mobith, who had just built a church, brought Saint Cairan, Saint Kenneth, and Saint Columba to see it, and desired each of them to say with what things he would have it filled, if he had the accomplish- meet of his wish. Cairan, who spoke first, said he would wish to have it filled with holy men ardently engaged in celebrating the praises of God. Kenneth said, his wish would be to have it filled with sacred books, which should be read by many teachers, who would instruct multitudes, and stir them up to the service of God. And I, said Columba, would wish to have it filled with silver and gold, as a fund for erecting monasteries, and churches, and colleges, and for relieving the necessities of the poor and needy.

It is a curious fact in ancient Scottish ecclesiastical hitory, though not so generally known as it deserves, that a large body of pastors and people from this island and other mountains of Scotland, like the ancient Waldenses among the Alps and valleys of Piedmont, maintained, at an early period, the true worship of God in its native simplicity, and preached the gospel in its purity for ninny generations, when it was greatly corrupted in other places. A change much to the worse began to take place amongst them about the beginning of the ninth century, when almost all the men of Ions were destroyed or dispersed by the Danish freebooters, and when those misfortunes commenced which afterwards endured for ages. Society was greatly unhinged by war, anarchy, and desolation, and a seminary in such a state could not be expected to stand the shock of such revolutions. Yet some of the good seed seems to have been still preserved and propagated in the country by the ancient Culdees, who sprung from the schools and seminaries of Columba. Let us now turn our attention for a little to the closing scene of Columba's long and useful life.

A few weeks previous to his death, he went out along with his faithful Christian servant Dermit, and entering the barn, where he saw two heaps of corn, he expressed great satisfaction, and thanked God, whose bounty had thus provided a sufficiency of bread for his dear monks in this year in which he was finally to leave them. "During this year," said Dermit, wiping his eyes, "you have made us all sad by the mention of your death." "Yes, Dermit," said the holy Saint, "but I will now be more explicit with you, on condition that you promise to keep what I tell you a secret till I die." Dermit promised to do so, and the Saint went on. "This day, in the sacred volume, is called 'the Sabbath '—that is 'rest'—and it will be indeed a Sabbath of rest to me, for it is to me the last day of this toilsome life—the day on which I am to rest from all my labour and trouble for on this sacred night of the Lord, at the midnight hour, I go the way of my fathers?' Dennit then wept bitterly, and the Saint administered to him all the consolation in his power.After a little time, Dermit being somewhat composed, they left the barn. Columba afterwards ascended a little eminence on the island, immediately above his monastery, where he stood, and lifting both his eyes and hands to heaven, prayed God to bless and prosper it. He then went to evening service in the church, and, after coming home, sat down on his bed, and gave it in charge to Dermit to deliver the following to his disciples as his last words:-" My dying charge to you, my dear children, is, that you all live in peace, and sincerely love one another and if you do this, as becometh saints, the God who comforts and upholds the good will help you and now that I am going to dwell with him, will request that you may both have a sufficient supply of the necessaries of the present transitory life, and a share in that everlasting bliss which he has prepared fQr those who observe his laws."

After this he rested or remained quiet till the bell was rung for prayers, at the hour of midnight, which was the general practice of Christians in very early ages. Hastily rising and going to the church, he arrived there before any other, and kneeled down before the altar to pray. When Dermit, who did not walk or run so quick, approached the church, he perceived it—as did others—all illuminated, and as it were filled with a heavenly glory or angelic light, which, on his entering the door, immediately vanished upon which Dermit cried with a mournful voice—O, my father, where art thou!! My father, where art thou!! and groping, without waiting for lamps, found the Saint lying before the altar in a praying posture. Dermit, attempting to raise him up a little, sat beside him, supporting the Saint's head upon his bosom, till lights came in. When the brethren saw their father dying, they raised all at once a very doleful cry. Upon this the Saint, whose soul had not yet departed, lifted up his eyes and—as Adomnan, his biographer, relates—looked around him with inexpressible cheerfulness and joy of countenance, seeing no doubt the holy angels come to meet his departing spirit. He then attempted, with Dermit's assistance, to raise his right hand to bless the monks, who were then all about him but his voice having failed, he made with his hand alone the motion which he used in pronouncing his usual benediction: after which heimme- diately breathed out his spirit, still retaining some tranquil smiles. By the brightness and the fresh look of his countenance, he had not the least appearance of one who was dead, but only sleeping. After the spirit had departed, and when the morning hymns were ended, the sacred body was carried from the church to the house of the brethren, amidst the loud singing of psalms and three days and three nights were spent in the sweet praises of God. "The venerable body of our holy and blessed patron," says Adomnan, "was wrapped in fair linen sheets, and put into a coffin prepared for it, and was buried with all due respect, to rise as a luminary in eternal glory on the day of the resurrection. Such was the close of our venerable patron's life, who is now, according to the Scriptures, associated with the patriarchs, prophets, and apostles, and thousands of saints, who are clothed in white robes washed in the blood of the Lamb, and who follow him whithersoever he goeth. Such was the grace vouchsafed to his pure and spotless soul by Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with the Father and Holy Spirit, be honour and power, praise and glory, and eternal dominion, for ever and ever."

Thus, on the 9th of June, 597, and in the seventy-seventh year of his age, died Columba, the Christian Apostle of Iona a man whose extraordinary piety and usefulness,—accompanied with a perpetual serenity of mind, cheerfulness of countenance, simplicity of manners, benevolence of heart, and sweetness of disposition,—have deservedly raised him to the first rank of saints and holy men. His life, so zealously devoted to the cause and spread of early Christianity, was very singular and the extent of his usefulness, and the happy results of his labours and exertions, will remain hid till the judgment of the great day unfold them.

Adomnan gives a beautiful and classical description of two ora or dinary visions, which he says had been seen on the night on which Columba died. One of them by a holy man in Ireland, who told to his friends next morning that he had a vision through the previous night, declaring that Columba was dead and the other by a number of fishermen, who had been that night fishing on a loch called Glenfende, from some of whom Adomnan had the relation when he was a boy. The purport of it was—" That on the night and hour on which Columba, the founder of so many churches, had departed, a pillar of fire, which illuminated all the sky with a light brighter than that of the mid-day sun, was seen to arise from Iona, while loud and sweet sounding anthems of innumerable choirs of angels ascending with his soul were distinctly heard, and that when this column reached the heavens the darkness again returned, as if the sun had suddenly set at noonday."

Such lively pictures of the religious opinions of former times will not displease the antiquary, nor appear insignificant to the good and the pious. The cold sceptic may perhaps smile at the credulity of former ages, but credulity is more favourable to the happiness of man and to the interests of society than scepticism. In the history of all ages and nations, we read of some such extraordinary appearances in certain stages of society shall we then refuse all credit to human testimony, or shall we allow that a kind Providence may have adapted itself to the dark state of society, and given such visible and striking proofs of the connection and communication between this world and a world of spirits, as may be properly withheld from more enlightened times, which may need them less, and perhaps less deserve them. Adomnan remarks, that even in his time a heavenly light and manifestation of angels was frequently seen on Iona at Columba's grave.

These latter remarks remind me much of a visit paid to the island of Icolumbkill, or Iona, in the year 1825, by the late Rev. Leigh Richmond, Rector of Turvey, in Bedfordshire, as recorded in his memoirs:—On that occasion he met with upwards of two hundred children, and addressed them and their parents, through the medium of a Gaelic interpreter, on their eternal interests. Before leaving the island, however, he ordered a kind of feast to be prepared for the children on the grassy banks of the sea-shore, for there was no house large enough to contain them on the island. The principal dish at this singular juvenile banquet was the fattest sheep that could be procured on the island, value 68. and two lambs at Is. each and, for lack of eating implements, the children selected fine shells from the sea-shore to supply the deieney of knives and forks. The following beautiful hymn was composed by the reverend gentleman, and sung on the occasion:-

The revolution of ages hurries on imperceptibly, with almost the rapidity of lightning. While our eyes scan over the pages of past history, we are apt to heave an involuntary sigh over the ruins of time, the ravages of death, and the desolations of empires. Where are now the Persian, the Assyrian, and the Roman empires? Where is Tyre, and Nineveh, and Babylon? Where are the ancient cities of Baalbeck, Tadmor in the Desert, and Palmyra ?—supposed to be built by Solomon—the ruins of whose gorgeous buildings appear to have exceeded his famed Temple of Jerusalem. The answer i&-they have all perished in the wreck of ages. The ploughshare of time has erased even their very foundations and no trace of them is now to be found, but some huge pillars and broken columns and capitals strewn along the Palmyrian desert. Such is the history of the empires and cities of our globe. And in a few centuries hence where shall populous London, Empress of the Thames, be found ?—or commercial Glasgow, Queen of the far-famed Clyde? Their names, indeed, may be inscribed on the page of history by the pen of the historian but there will not be found, amongst their present stately buildings, " one stone Left on another that shall not be thrown down." Not only empires and cities are doomed to decay and ruin, to destruction and oblivion, but the fair fabric of this vast universe itself is rapidly hastening to a final end. Yes,


Chronology

1703 The Maryland Assembly grants Scottish immigrant Ninian Beall a tract of 795 acres for his services “[against] all incursions and disturbances of neighboring Indians.” Beall names the property “Rock of Dumbarton,” after the distinctive geologic feature near Glasgow in his native Scotland.

1717 Ninian Beall dies and the property descends in the family.

1751 The Maryland Legislature charters a new town, named George-Town, that includes part of the original Rock of Dumbarton.

Rock of Dumbarton

1796 Thomas Beall, grandson of Ninian, sells approximately four acres of his inheritance (where Dumbarton House now stands) to Peter Casenave, mayor of Georgetown. After two months, Casenave sells to General Uriah Forrest for 20 percent more.

1797 Forrest sells to Isaac Polack for five times what he paid for it.

1798 Polack sells to Samuel Jackson, a merchant from Philadelphia, for less than half what he paid.

1799 Jackson builds a large “two-story brick house with a passage through the center, four rooms on a floor and good cellars” just before our nation’s capital is moved from Philadelphia to Washington. Jackson mortgages the property.

1804 The United States, having acquired the mortgage, sells the property at public auction. Joseph Nourse purchases the property for $8,581.67 as a home for his family.

1813 Nourse sells the property to Charles Carroll, a cousin of the signer of the Declaration of Independence. Carroll names the house Bellevue, after his former plantation near Hagerstown, Maryland.

1814 On August 24, Charles Carroll, at President James Madison’s request, goes to the president’s house to urge Dolley Madison to leave, as the Americans are retreating from Bladensburg and the British will soon be entering Washington. Dolley, together with Eleanor Jones, wife of the Secretary of the Navy, flees to Carroll’s Bellevue, before going to Virginia to meet Madison.

1815 Carroll vacates Bellevue and over the course of the next 26 years it is occupied by a succession of tenants.

1841 Charles Carroll’s heirs sell the house.

1915 Bellevue is moved about 100 feet to the north. The house had always been located in the middle of today’s Q Street. With the construction of the Dumbarton Bridge connecting Q Street in Washington and Georgetown, however, it was decided that that street should also be made continuous within Georgetown. To avoid demolishing the unfortunately located Bellevue, the house was moved out of the way to its present site.

1928 The National Society of The Colonial Dames of America purchases the property.

1932 The property opens as Dumbarton House, a Federal period historic house museum and headquarters of The National Society, following restoration of its Federal character under the direction of Horace Peaslee, second vice president of the American Institute of Architects, and nationally renowned architectural historian Fiske Kimball.


History Lessons

Restoration of the North Garden Niche

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The Hidden Figures of Dumbarton House: Slavery and Servitude within the Nourse family Household

For over a decade interns, volunteers, and staff at Dumbarton House have been researching the question—did the Nourse family have any enslaved workers or indentured …

Digitizing the NSCDA Archives

By Cheyenne Laux, Archives Intern October-December 2020 A small historic house museum, Dumbarton House has been the headquarters of the National Society of The Colonial …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Globe Amaranth

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Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Japanese Cedar

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Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Japanese Snowbell

Styrax japonicus Japanese Snowbell is native to China and Japan. It is a graceful, compact, deciduous flowering tree that grows to 20-30 feet tall with …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Chaste Tree

Vitex agnus castus The Chaste Tree is a native of China and India but has become naturalized throughout the South. Peter Henderson, an early American …

Dumbarton House Featured Flora: Scholar Tree, Pagoda Tree

Sophora japonica Sophora japonica is native to China and Korea, but not Japan. The common name, Pagoda Tree, recognizes the early use of the tree in …


Dumbarton - History

Sailing up the Clyde towards Glasgow there is a vast and imposing sentinel guarding the river at Dumbarton. As a fortress it has a long and proud history, and, in fact, has a longer recorded history than any other in Britain.

The rock was the centre of the Kingdom of the Britons, that stretched along the River Clyde, north into Stirlingshire and south into Ayrshire. Known as Dun Breatann - ‘Fortress of the Britons’ or 'Alt Clut' (Rock of the Clyde). It was the centre of a flourishing Britonnic culture that spoke Old Welsh, or Cumbric, which is now almost entirely forgotten.

Dumbarton Rock Factsheet

    Dumbarton Rock enters history in the mid 5th century with a letter of complaint from St Patrick to Coroticus, King of the Britons, telling him to stop kidnapping Christians and selling them into slavery.

Olaf and his brother Ivarr laid siege to the formidable rock fortress of Dumbarton. For four months the starving Britons held out, until the true death blow - the fortress’s well dried up. At that point the Vikings broke in, plundering the kingdom of its treasures and taking a ‘great host’ of Britons to Ireland as slaves on a fleet of 200 ships. The taking of Dumbarton was a terrific achievement: Olaf was famed in Icelandic Sagas as the ‘greatest warrior-king in the Western Sea’. As was normal in the dark Ages, Olaf’s luck didn’t hold. Within a year he was dead, probably killed at the hands of Constantine I, King of Pictland.


The Kingdom of the Britons

Sailing up the Clyde towards Glasgow there is a vast and imposing sentinel guarding the river at Dumbarton. As a fortress Dumbarton Rock has a long and proud history, and, in fact, has a longer recorded history than any other in Britain.

The Kingdom of the Britons stretched along the River Clyde, north into Stirlingshire and south into Ayrshire. Dumbarton Rock, known as Dun Breatann - 'Fortress of the Britons' or 'Alt Clut' (Rock of the Clyde), was the stronghold of the Strathclyde Britons and a flourishing centre of a Britonnic culture that spoke Old Welsh, or Cumbric - a language now almost entirely forgotten.

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Dumbarton Rock enters history in the mid 5th century with a letter of complaint from St Patrick to Coroticus, King of the Britons, telling him to stop kidnapping Christians and selling them into slavery.

A fascinating account of the Britonnic Scots is provided by Scotland's earliest poetry. 'The Gododdin', written by the Welsh bard Aneirin, tells the tale of a disastrous raid by the warband of the Britons of Edinburgh on the Angles, revelling in their deeds and mourning the loss of so many fine warriors.

By the mid 7th century only Dumbarton, of all the Britonnic Kingdoms of Scotland, had survived the Angles' onslaught. This has left us with the image of the Britons as doomed, heroic losers of the Dark Ages - an image depicted by their own poetry and their seemingly hopeless strategic position, trapped between the powerful Picts to the north and the Angles to the south. However, this is a mistaken image. The Britons were perfectly capable of defeating even the mightiest of their opponents.

For most of the 9th century Dumbarton seems to have avoided the worst of the Viking attacks which ravaged Scotland, that is until 866 AD, when Olaf the White, the Norse King of Dublin, brought a raiding army to plunder Scotland.

Olaf was married to Aud the Deep-minded, whose family controlled the Hebrides, and it seems likely that many Hebridean Vikings joined Olaf's army. For three years Olaf's army wreaked havoc, plundering and extorting money from Picts and Britons alike.

In 869 AD the Britons must have breathed a sigh of relief when Olaf returned to Ireland to curb Irish attacks on Viking Dublin. Never the less, Olaf swiftly returned to achieve one of his greatest feats.

Olaf and his brother Ivarr laid siege to the formidable rock fortress of Dumbarton. For four months the starving Britons held out, until the true death blow - the fortress's well dried up. At that point the Vikings broke in, plundering the kingdom of its treasures and taking a 'great host' of Britons to Ireland as slaves on a fleet of 200 ships.

The taking of Dumbarton was a terrific achievement: Olaf was famed in Icelandic Sagas as the "greatest warrior-king in the Western Sea". As was normal in the dark Ages, Olaf's luck didn't hold. Within a year he was dead, probably killed at the hands of Constantine I, King of Pictland.

For the Britons worse was to follow. Their king, Artgal, had escaped Dumbarton's destruction, perhaps fleeing to the seeming safety of Pictland but there he too met his end, slain, it was said, 'on the counsel of Constantine'.

It was the end of the road for the Kingdom of Dumbarton but not for the Britons as a people. A new kingdom, further up the river, 'Strathclyde', would soon emerge.

It stretched along the Clyde valley and from Govan in Glasgow down to Penrith in Cumbria. Its royal centre was at Cadzow, near Hamilton, with Partick, in Glasgow, serving as a royal hunting forest.

In 878 the Britons may have gained revenge on the house of MacAlpin when Eochaid, son of Rhun, and his foster father, Giric, forced the house of MacAlpin from the Kingship of Pictland, however, in 889 they returned and expelled Giric and Eochaid.

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For the Britons this may have been a disaster. The following year, Welsh sources note, the men of Strathclyde who didn't accept the new order, went into exile and settled in Gwynedd (or Wales). Following this exodus, Strathclyde seems to have become a sub-kingdom of the new Pictish and Gaelic Kingdom of Alba, with its royal line related to the Kings of Alba.

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The last king of Strathclyde, Owein the Bald, died fighting for Malcolm II, King of Alba, at the Battle of Carham.


Dumbarton Oaks Conference

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Dumbarton Oaks Conference, (August 21–October 7, 1944), meeting at Dumbarton Oaks, a mansion in Georgetown, Washington, D.C., where representatives of China, the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom formulated proposals for a world organization that became the basis for the United Nations.

This conference constituted the first important step taken to carry out paragraph 4 of the Moscow Declaration of 1943, which recognized the need for a postwar international organization to succeed the League of Nations. The Dumbarton Oaks proposals (Proposals for the Establishment of a General International Organization) did not furnish a complete blueprint for the United Nations. They failed to provide an agreed arrangement on such crucial questions as the voting system of the proposed Security Council and the membership provisions for the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. These issues were resolved at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, which also resulted in the proposal of a trusteeship system under the new agency to take the place of the League of Nations mandate system (kyk Trusteeship Council). The proposals, as thus supplemented, formed the basis of negotiations at the San Francisco Conference, out of which came the Charter of the United Nations in 1945.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Brian Duignan, Senior Editor.