Geskiedenis Podcasts

Nara tydlyn

Nara tydlyn

  • 593

    Die Boeddhistiese Gango-ji-tempel, die oudste in Japan, word in Asuka gestig.

  • 607

    Die Horyuji Boeddhistiese tempel is gebou in Nara, Japan tydens die bewind van die Regent Prince Shotoku.

  • c. 670

    Baie strukture by die Boeddhistiese Horyuji -klooster in Nara, Japan, word deur vuur vernietig.

  • 707 - 715

    Die bewind van keiserin Gemmei in Japan.

  • 710 - 794

  • 710

    Die Japannese hoofstad word van Fujiwara-kyo na Nara (oftewel Heijokyo) verskuif.

  • 710

    Die geboue van die Boeddhistiese Horyuji -klooster in Nara, Japan, word herbou.

  • 710

    Die Boeddhistiese Kofukuji -tempel word gevestig in Nara, hooftempel van die Japanese Fujiwara -stam.

  • 710 - 784

    Nara is die hoofstad van antieke Japan.

  • 710

    Datum wat deur historici bevoordeel is vir die stigting van die Kasuga Taisha Shinto -heiligdom in Nara, Japan.

  • 718

    Die Boeddhistiese Gango-ji-tempel word van Asuka na Nara in Japan verplaas.

  • 718

    Die Yakushiji-tempel word van Fujiwara-kyo na Nara verplaas.

  • 735 - 737

    Japan ly aan twee pokke-epidemies wat 25-35% van die bevolking doodmaak.

  • 739

    Die Hall of Dreams of Yumedono is gebou in die Boeddhistiese klooster Horyuji, Nara, Japan.

  • 740

    Keiser Shomu vernietig 'n opstand onder leiding van die Fujiwara -ballingskap Hirotsugu.

  • 747

    'N Standbeeld van Hachiman word seremonieel van die Shinto Usa -heiligdom na die Boeddhistiese Todaiji -heiligdom in Nara, Japan, oorgeplaas.

  • 752

  • 758 - 764

    Die bewind van keiser Junnin in Japan.

  • 759

    Die Boeddhistiese Toshodai-ji-tempel word in Nara, Japan, gestig deur die monnik Ganjin.

  • 768

    Amptelike stigtingsdatum van die Kasuga Taisha Shinto -heiligdom in Nara, Japan.

  • 794

    Keiser Kammu verhuis die Japannese hoofstad na Heiankyo (Kyoto).

  • 841

    Jag en boomkap is verbode in die woude rondom die Kasuga Taisha-tempel, Nara, Japan.

  • 990

    Die lesingsaal by die Boeddhistiese klooster Horyuji in Nara, Japan, is gebou.

  • 1135

    Die Wakamiya Jinja -heiligdom word gestig in Kasuga Taisha, Nara, Japan.

  • 1180

    Die Todaiji -tempel in Nara word tydens die Genpei -oorlog deur 'n brand verwoes.

  • 1195


Nara Tydlyn - Geskiedenis

Die National Archives and Records Administration is daartoe verbind om die gesondheid en veiligheid van besoekers, kliënte en werknemers te beskerm tydens die COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemie. NARA se fasiliteite is gesluit tot verdere kennisgewing en persoonlike dienste vir die publiek en ander federale agentskappe is byna heeltemal opgeskort. Alle ISOO -personeel werk op afstand en ons doen alles in ons vermoë om, indien moontlik, voort te gaan om dienste te lewer, met behulp van aanlyn- en afstandsfunksies. Die vermoë van ISOO om ons kliënte betyds te bedien, kan deur die huidige krisis belemmer word. Om 'n vinniger antwoord op u navraag te verseker, kontak ons ​​asseblief per e -pos by [[email protected] / [email protected] / [email protected] .gov] Ons vra u begrip en waardeer u geduld. ISOO sal sy blog, ISOO Overview, gebruik om met belanghebbendes oor alle ISOO -aangeleenthede te kommunikeer. Sluit asseblief aan vir weeklikse plasings.

Besoek die CUI -blog: Beheerde ongeklassifiseerde inligting vir meer inligting.

Die Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI) -program, gestig deur Uitvoerende Bevel 13556, standaardiseer die manier waarop die uitvoerende tak ongeklassifiseerde inligting hanteer wat beveiligings- of verspreidingsbeheer vereis in ooreenstemming met en in ooreenstemming met die wet, regulasies en beleid van die hele regering. Lees meer oor CUI


Heian tydperk

In die uitnemende aristokratiese kultuur wat vroeg in die elfde eeu floreer het, 'n tyd toe die gebruik van die hiragana -alfabet wat uit Chinese karakters afgelei is, wydverspreid geword het, speel hofdames die sentrale rol in die ontwikkeling van literatuur. Een van hulle, Murasaki Shikibu skryf die roman met 54 hoofstukke (Tale of Genji) [in die 11de eeu, ongeveer 1008 ?], terwyl 'n ander een, Sei Shonagon , het geskryf (The Pillow Book), 'n uiteenlopende versameling aantekeninge en essays [rondom 996 ]. Ander het ook dagboeke en verhale geskryf, en hul sielkundige voorstellings bly vars en lewendig vir hedendaagse lesers. Die voorkoms van die (Tales of a Time That Is Now Past) rondom 1120 het 'n nuwe dimensie aan die letterkunde toegevoeg. Hierdie versameling van meer as 1,000 Boeddhistiese en sekulêre verhale uit Indië, China en Japan is veral opvallend vir sy ryk beskrywings van die lewens van die adel en gewone mense in Japan op daardie tydstip.


Nara Tydlyn - Geskiedenis

Regent Shōtoku Taishi
Karahon no Miei = 唐 本 御 影
Portret van 'n edelman in Chinese styl

Nara Era Painting (8ste C) in die
Keiserlike huishoudelike versameling
H 101,3 cm X B 52,5 cm

Oudste bestaande skildery van
Sesshou Taishi 摂 政 太子
Letterlik “ Regent Taishi ”

Septer in die hand
Geflankeer deur jonger
broer (L = Eguri 殖 栗) en
1ste seun (R = Yamashiro 山 背)

Die prins het nooit 'n monnik geword nie (sommige bronne sê dat hy dit gedoen het). In die moderne algemene opvatting word hy vereer as 'n Boeddhistiese heilige, en in sommige tradisies word hy beskou as 'n manifestasie van Kannon Bosatsu of Shaka Boeddha. Na sy dood begin portrette van die prins in klein getalle verskyn. Sien die skildery hierbo, wat die oudste bestaande skildery in Japan is. Bekende kunsgeleerde Ernest F. Fenollosa (+1853 - 1908) skryf hierdie stuk toe aan die Koreaanse prins Asa, 'n tydgenoot van prins Shōtoku, maar moderne geleerdes dateer dit uit die vroeë 8ste eeu. Teen die laat 11de eeu kom skilderye en beeldhouwerke van die geliefde prins egter in groot getalle voor, en baie bestaan ​​nog. Die kunswerke van die prins is miskien meer volop as kunswerke van alle ander werklike figure uit Japan, met die moontlike uitsondering van Koubou Daishi (Kōbō Daishi) 弘法 大師 (+774 - 835), die stigter van die Japanse esoteriese Shingon Ect sekte van Boeddhisme.

Spring na Shōtoku Taishi, 'n spesiale bladsy met meer besonderhede en foto's gewy aan die prins.

SEEPASSASIE UIT KOREA & CHINA
Onder teks en beeld met vergunning:
Henry Smith, Columbia Universiteit
Boeddhisme het per water na Japan gereis, op skepe wat deur die binnelandse see na die hawe van Naniwa gegaan het. Van hier af het die besoekende priesters en ambagsmanne, tesame met Boeddhistiese geskrifte, beelde en seremoniële werktuie, langs die Yamato -rivier na die Yamato -kom gereis, wat u op die kaart vergroot sien.

Hierdie klam en vrugbare vlakte, ongeveer tien kilometer breed en omring deur lae berge, was die tuiste van die vroeë Japannese staat soos dit in die vyfde en sesde eeu gestalte gekry het. Die rooi sirkels toon die basis van die mededingende stamme wat gesukkel het om magte in die ontluikende staat. Die besonder kragtige Soga 蘇 我 -stam word gesien in die Asuka -streek in die suide. Om die patroon van endemiese oorlogvoering in die Yamato -bekken los te maak, het prins Shotoku die radikale stap geneem om sy paleis nie in 'n militêre vesting naby die berge te plaas nie, maar eerder naby die middel van die wasbak, nader aan die punt waar die Yamato Rivier vloei uit na Naniwa 難 波 (hedendaagse Osaka). Dit toon die prins se beleid om op die mag van kontinentale idees te vertrou eerder as tradisionele militêre mag. 'n Aanhaling van Henry Smith, wat ook sê: '#Hierdie skyfievertoning is eers aan die einde van die sewentigerjare aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Santa Barbara, voorberei vir gebruik in die onderrig van 'n kursus met die titel & quot; Japanese History Through Art and Literature. & quot & gt

Kudara Kannon
済 観 音
7de eeu


Kudara Kannon
済 観 音
7de eeu
Houryuu-ji-tempel
Vergulde kamfer
(Kusu 樟) met Polychromy
H = 210,9 cm

Die meeste geleerdes glo dat hierdie beeld uit Korea kom of gemaak is deur Koreaanse ambagsmanne wat in Japan woon. Die naam van die standbeeld (Kudara Kannon) beteken letterlik "Paekche Kannon." Paekche was gedurende hierdie tydperk een van drie koninkryke in Korea. Die standbeeld word beskou as 'n groot skat van die vroeë Japannese Boeddhisme.

Foto met vergunning
日本 の 美 を め ぐ る
週刊, #11, 9 Julie 2002

Volgens die meeste geleerdes was dit die koning van Kudara 百 済 (oftewel Paekche, Paekje, Paikche, Baekje), 'n koninkryk in Korea, wat hierdie geskenke aan die Japannese hof in die Asuka -distrik oorhandig het. Inhoud wat die bronsbeeld toevertrou het aan die leier van die Soga 蘇 我 -klan, wat as kanselier van die jong Japannese nasie opgetree het. Maar kort daarna het 'n uitbraak van pokke plaasgevind, en stamme teen die invloed van Soga en die inleiding van Boeddhisme beweer dat die standbeeld verantwoordelik was vir die siekte wat Japan teister.

Die keiser, in die hoop om die situasie te versprei, beveel dat die standbeeld in die Naniwa-rivier gegooi word, naby die paleis van die hof in die huidige Osaka-stad. Volgens die legende is die standbeeld daarna in die rivier gegooi. Daar word gesê dat die weggegooide standbeeld later uit die rivier geheng is na die oorwinning (tydelik) van die Soga -stam, en word tans in Asuka Dera (Nara) geïnstalleer.

Hierdie legende is verkeerd, vir die bestaande standbeeld wat by Asuka Dera geïnstalleer is (sien foto hier) is in +609 gegiet. Dit is 2,75 meter hoog, baie te groot om die legendariese Boeddha -standbeeld te wees om in Japan aan te kom. Volgens die meeste word die eerste Boeddhabeelde wat in Japan aangekom het, vandag gevind by die Zenkoji (Zenkōji) tempel 善 光寺 in die Nagano Prefektuur, wat drie standbeelde huisves, bekend as die Amida Triad 善 光寺 の 阿 弥陀 三尊.

6de en 7de EEU
NUWE STAATSBELOOPING
Die Koreaanse en Chinese sendelinge wat daarna in groot getalle na Japan gekom het, het rituele en tekste van beide die Theravada- en Mahayana -skole gebring, maar veral die Mahayana -vorm het sy belofte van redding getref vir beide monastieke volgelinge sowel as leke. Teen die Nara -periode (sien hieronder) word Boeddhisme die staatsbelydenis. Die vroeë sendelinge en ambagsmanne het ook hul kuns en tegnieke gebring om Boeddhistiese ikone en sutra's weer te gee. Vergulde bronsbeelde (sien Asuka Art) van die Boeddhistiese gode verskyn in groot getalle. Dit is eers in die laat Nara- en vroeë Heian -periodes dat hout oorheersing kry. Boeddhistiese kunswerke uit hierdie vroeë tydperk en voortaan behoort meestal aan die Mahayana -tradisie, hoewel kunswerke uit Theravada en Vajrayana (Esoteriese) tradisies nog steeds volop is.

Drie tekste was van groot invloed in die ou Japan - die Lotus Sutra 法華經 (Hokke kyō), die Sutra van goue lig 金光明 經 (Konkōmyō kyō) en die welwillende konings Sutra 仁王 經 (Nin ō gyō). Dit is die 'Drie Skrifte wat die staat beskerm' genoem. 'Die Japanse hof se vroeë steun vir Boeddhisme was inderdaad grootliks gebaseer op die begeerte van die hof om Boeddhisme te gebruik as 'n instrument van staatsmag en konsolidasie eerder as 'n instrument van redding vir die massas. Boeddhistiese seremonies is destyds hoofsaaklik vir die hof gereël om die welsyn van die land te verseker, om demone van siektes te verdryf en om reën te verseker en dus baie oeste.

Gaan na kunswerke uit die Asuka -periode, met 'n lang oorsig van Asuka -kuns en talle foto's.

6de en 7de EEU
WEERSTAND AAN BOEDDISME
Die oorgang na Boeddhisme was nie altyd vreedsaam nie. In die tyd van Prince Shotoku het dit 'n vete veroorsaak tussen pro-Shinto-faksies (Mononobe-faksie 物 部) en pro-Boeddhistiese magte (Soga clan 蘇 我), een waarin die jong prins na berig word geveg het. Ironies genoeg sou die pro-Boeddhistiese Soga-stam wat prins Shoutoku ondersteun het (Shoutoku was ook 'n lid van die afstamming) in die volgende paar dekades die mag van die troon sou toeneem, die erfgenaam van Shoutoku sou dwing om selfmoord te pleeg (sodoende sou die prins 'n einde maak direkte lyn), maar uiteindelik self vernietig word tydens 'n staatsgreep onder leiding van die keiserlike familie.

Boeddhisme het die dag gewen, maar die daaropvolgende sukses was te danke aan sy verdraagsaamheid en absorpsie van die ouer gode van die inheemse Shinto -bergkulture. Voor Boeddhisme was Sjinto -sjamanisme en bergaanbidding die oorheersende vorme van inheemse geloof. Japan se pre-Boeddhistiese oortuigings in natuurgeeste en heilige mans met magiese kragte is gedurende die Nara- en Heian-tydperk in die Boeddhisme opgeneem, wat gelei het tot 'n komplekse mengsel van Sjinto-Boeddhistiese praktyk.

Gaan na kunswerke uit die Asuka -periode, met 'n lang oorsig van Asuka -kuns en talle foto's.

6de en 7de EEU
SHINTO IN ASUKA PERIODE
In die Asuka -tydperk het geloof in die inheemse godsdienstige tradisie van Japan die naam SHINTO gekry om dit te onderskei van die ingevoerde Boeddhistiese geloof. Shinto was in daardie dae hoofsaaklik gebaseer op bergaanbidding, sjamanistiese praktyke, eeue oue rituele en feeste wat baie tussen verskillende plekke verskil het. Daar was geen sentrale leerstelling of sentrale organisatoriese struktuur nie, maar 'n paar inheemse godsdienstige rites was reeds stewig by die hof gevestig, veral die jaarlikse Niinamesai -fees 祭 嘗 祭 toe die keiser die eerste rysoes vir die plaaslike kami (gode) aangebied het. Keiser Tenmu 天 武 (+673 - 686) het dit nodig gevind om Folk Shinto te skei van Jinja Shinto (Court Shinto) tydens sy bewind om staatsbeheer oor die oudste tradisies en feeste te verseker. Interessant genoeg het Shinto -gode eers antropomorfiese eienskappe gekry nadat die Nihon Shoki Ch 書 紀 (Chronicles of Japan), een van die vroegste amptelike rekords van Japan, ongeveer +720 versprei het. Saam met die Kojiki 古 事 記 (Record of Ancient Matters), nog 'n hofgeborgde dokument van daardie tyd, is hierdie uitgebreide geskiedenis in opdrag van keiser Tenmu 天 武 (+673 - 686) gegee om aan die Chinese keiser te demonstreer dat die Yamato 大 和 Dynasty (aka Japan) ) 'n lang en vooraanstaande geskiedenis gehad het - waardeur dit bewys is dat Japan 'n soewereine koninkryk was. Hierdie dokumente is eers in die daaropvolgende Nara -tydperk versprei. Vir 'n paar meer besonderhede, klik hier.

Een no Gyōja 役 was een van die beroemdste bergwysers in die vormingsjare. Hierdie legendariese heilige man was 'n berg -asket (yamabushi 山 伏) van die laat 7de eeu. Soos baie oor Sjinto-Boeddhistiese sinkretisme, is sy legende deurspek met folklore. Hy was 'n waarsêer by die berg Katsuragi op die grens tussen Nara en Osaka. Daar word gesê dat hy magiese kragte besit, maar hy is in +699 na die Izu -prefektuur geskors omdat hy die mense gelei het en die staatsbeperkings oor die prediking onder gewone mense geïgnoreer het. Hy word beskou as die vader van Shugendo (Shugendō) 修 験 道, 'n groot sinkretiese beweging wat pre-Boeddhistiese bergaanbidding (sangaku shinkou 山岳 信仰) gekombineer het met Boeddhistiese leerstellings. Volgens gewilde mense het hy geklim en talle heilige berge ingewy. Berg -aske word vandag yamabushi 山 伏 of shugenja 修 験 called genoem. 'N Belangrike godheid van die Shugendō -sekte is Zaō Gongen (Zao Gongen), die sinkretiese avatar wat aan En no Gyōja verskyn het.


Sit Bodhisattva
H = 16,3 cm, vergulde brons
Tydperk van drie koninkryke
7de eeu, Korea
By die Tokyo Nat ’l Museum

In die Asuka- en Nara -tydperke, vergulde bronsbeelde (kondou 金銅) is in groot hoeveelhede ingevoer uit Korea en China, en talle kopieë hiervan is in Japan se werkswinkels deur die hof geborg. Brons en klei was die gewildste materiaal vir beeldhouwerk. Houtbeelde is meestal ingevoer of gekopieer uit Koreaanse en Chinese modelle. Dit was eers in die laat 7de eeu dat houtbeelde in vergelyking en gewildheid vergulde bronsbeelde oorskry. Die meeste houtbeelde wat in hierdie tydperk in Japan gemaak is, is gemaak van kamfer (kusu 樟), uit 'n enkele blok gesny en dan vergul of geverf.

Die Nara -tydperk kan met reg die Shōmu -era genoem word, want die hoofstad in Nara tydens die bewind van keiser Shōmu (regeer +724 tot 749) was die tuiste van tussen 70,000 tot 200,000 mense en beslaan ongeveer 4,2 kilometer van oos na wes en 4,7 kilometer van noord na suid. & ltsource: Tanaka Hidemichi & gt Dit verteenwoordig Japan se eerste werklike tydperk van keiserlike glans en stedelike verspreiding.

Keiser Shōmu 聖武 (ook gespel Shomu of Shoumu) beveel dat 'n landwye stelsel van provinsiale tempels ingestel moet word kokubunji 国 分 寺. Die keiser wend hom veral tot die leerstellings van die Kegon -skool (een van die ses skole van Nara) om as basis van die regering te dien. Die skriftuurlike gesag van die Kegon -skool is die Garland Sutra (Skt. = Avatamsaka Sutra), en die belangrikste doel van verering is Birushana Buddha.

Een van die grootste artistieke prestasies van keiser Shōmu was om die bou van 'n reuse-uitbeelding van Birushana, die sogenaamde Groot Boeddha (Daibutsu) by die Tōdaiji-tempel order (ook gespel Todaiji, Toudai-ji) in Nara, destyds die hoof van alle staats gevestigde provinsiale tempels. Volgens die inhoud dat keiser Shomu self gehelp het om emmers te dra tydens die konstruksie van die reuse bronsbeeld van Birushana, wat na bewering in 752 klaar was. Destyds is dit beskou as die grootste standbeeld in sy soort ter wêreld. Priester Gyoki (+668-749), nog 'n uitblinker van die tydperk, het 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die insameling van geld vir die projek. 'N Ander groot prestasie van keiser Shōmu is die Shousouin 正 倉 院, 'n massiewe skathuis van kuns wat deur die keiser versamel is. Die versameling is geskenk aan Tōdaiji 東大寺 in +756 deur die weduwee van Shōmu, keiserin Kōmyō 光明, en is die moeite werd om 'n lang besoek deur hedendaagse liefhebbers van Boeddhistiese kuns te besoek.

Die Nara -tydperk word dikwels uitgebeeld as die eerste groot ouderdom van artistieke genie in Japan. Dit, in my gedagtes, is nie korrek nie . Die groot apogee van Japannese Boeddhistiese kuns kom later voor, tydens die laat Heian- en vroeë Kamakura -tydperke. Kunswerke uit die Nara -periode weerspieël meestal Chinese invloede, aristokratiese smaak en die reproduksie van ingevoerde beeldhoumodelle uit China en minder uit Korea. Hout (hoewel hoog aangeskryf) was nog nie die oorheersende materiaal wat gebruik is om Boeddhistiese beelde te maak nie. Houtbeelde was in werklikheid nog steeds in die minderheid as standbeelde van metaal (meestal brons, dikwels verguld) en klei, en het ook meegeding teen 'n nuwe produksietegniek genaamd Kanshitsu 乾 漆 (hol droë lak), 'n metode wat toe gewild was in Tang China. Sien Maak Boeddha -standbeelde vir besonderhede oor kerf- en produksietegnieke. Klei en droë lak floreer in die Nara -periode, maar word later oorkom deur die gewildheid van houtbeelde. Groot bronsbeelde is gedurende die Nara -periode in groot getalle gemaak, aangespoor deur die ontdekking van groot hoeveelhede koper in Japan in +708. Dit het Japan in staat gestel om te eksperimenteer met die giet van reuse bronsbeelde, en daar is nog baie voorbeelde. In die vorige Asuka -tydperk is metaal meestal ingevoer.

Spring na fototoer van die kunswerke van die Nara -periode, met 'n lang oorsig van Nara -kuns en talle foto's.

Esoteriese sektes
in die Heian -era
stel baie nuwe voor
gode na Japan, en
die samesmelting bevorder
van die Sjinto-Boeddhist
praktyke / oortuigings.


Dainichi Nyorai
Die sentrale godheid
van Esoteriese sektes,
in die middel geplaas
van die meeste mandalas.

Fudo Myo-o
Boos uitstraling
van Dainich Nyorai

Esoteriese Boeddhisme
bevat 'n panteon
van gode, wat is
uitgebeeld in groot
nommer in die
kunswerk om te kom
eeue.

Die inheemse Shinto kami (gode) wat op hierdie pieke woon, word beskou as manifestasies van Boeddhistiese goddelikhede, en daar word geglo dat pelgrimstogte na hierdie plekke dubbele guns van beide hul Shinto- en Boeddhistiese eweknieë bring. 'N Ander belangrike sentrum van sinkretisme was die Kasuga 春日 -heiligdomskompleks in Nara. Die aantal gode het toegeneem. Ondanks vroeë weerstand was sinkretisme relatief glad en gekenmerk deur godsdienstige verdraagsaamheid.

Hout begin oorheers in die beeldhoukuns, en is dikwels gelak, verguld of geverf, maar soms kaal gelaat (veral vir aromatiese hout). Meer Japannese missies (skakel buite) is na China gestuur, maar dit het ongeveer +894 geëindig. Teen die laat Heian -era het die Japanse Boeddhistiese kuns grotendeels geskei van die invloed van Tang China, en die ware apogee van die Japanse Boeddhistiese beeldhouwerk word laat in die periode en later in die daaropvolgende Kamakura -periode bereik. Skilderye, veral mandala -skilderye, deur Japan se Esoteriese sektes het groot gewildheid gekry.

LET WEL: Japan breek met China in die laat +9de eeu bied 'n geleentheid vir 'n ware inheemse Japannese kultuur om te blom, en vanaf hierdie punt word inheemse sekulêre kuns al hoe belangriker. Godsdienstige en sekulêre kuns floreer geleidelik tot in die 16de eeu, maar dan val die belangrikheid van geïnstitusionaliseerde Boeddhisme af as gevolg van die Confuciaanse etiek van die Edo-tydperk, kontak met die Westerse wêreld en politieke onrus. Sekulêre kuns word die primêre middel vir die uitdrukking van Japannese estetika, maar dit word sterk getemper deur die "spontaneïteit" van Zen -boeddhisme en die "affiniteit met die natuur" van Shinto. Boeddhistiese beeldhouwerk val egter in die algemeen en in die algemeen agteruit na die Kamakura -era.

最澄
Saicho (Saichō)

Stigter, Japan se Tendai -sekte

O pragtig gebel
Dengyō Daishi 傳教 大師
Daishi 大師 beteken 'Groot meester'

Tendai 天台
Lit. = Heavenly Terrace School
Dit word ook die Lotus Sutra -skool genoem



Kukai (Kūkai)
Stigter, Japan se Shingon -sekte

O pragtig gebel
Kobo Daishi (Kōbō Daishi) 弘法 大師
Daishi beteken “Groot Meester ”

Kūkai (ook bekend as Kōbō Daishi)
Een van Japan se mees geliefde heiliges

Kūkai was die aartsvader van die Shingon -sekte van Esoteriese Boeddhisme. Shingon is die Japanse weergawe van Vajrayana (Tantriese) Boeddhisme. Saam met Hinayana en Mahayana verteenwoordig Vajrayana vandag een van die drie basiese vorme van Boeddhisme in Asië. Dit is veral sterk in Japan en Tibet, en is ingewikkeld verbind met die mandala -kunsvorm. Die prominentste god van Shingon is Dainichi Buddha, wie se simbool die vajra is (dus Vajrayana, die Sanskrit -term vir diamantvoertuig).

Kūkai, wat postuum die naam Kōbō Daishi (die groot onderwyser) genoem is, bly steeds een van Japan se mees geliefde Boeddhistiese verlossers - volgens folklore het hy Boeddha -lewe bereik voor die dood. Portrette van hom is volop. Die Japannese ignoreer vandag leerstellige verskille wanneer hulle hom eer. Kūkai reis in 804 na China en is deur die Chinese priester Huiguo in esoteriese leerstellings begin. Kūkai keer terug in 806, en teen 816 kry hy keiserlike sanksie om sy klooster op die berg Kōya (Koya) te bou, 'n rustige plek op die Kii -skiereiland wat nog steeds beskou word as 'n Heilige Land en een van die moderne Japan se gewildste pelgrimstogte.

Hy het op baie terreine 'n aktiewe rol gespeel, rituele uitgevoer vir die keiser, 'n groot reservoir in Shikoku vir die gewone mense opgerig en die eerste skool vir gewone burgers opgerig. Sy legende is deurspek met folklore. Hy word gekrediteer met alles, van die uitvinding van Japan se kana script tot die bekendstelling van homoseksualiteit. Hy is een van die gewildste kalligrafiste in Japan en het vermoedelik die eerste woordeboek van Japan gepubliseer. Hy het 'n belangrike beskermheer geword en na berig word honderde tempels in Japan gestig. Die Shikoku -pelgrimstog na 88 webwerwe is 'n gewilde pelgrimstog wat aan Kukai toegeskryf word. Die meeste toegewydes dra 'n staf met die woorde & quotwe twee loop saam. & Quot

Gaan na kunswerke uit die Heian -periode, met 'n lang oorsig van Heian -kuns en talle foto's.

10DE EEU
HEIAN ERA (+794 - 1185)
Shinto-Boeddhistiese sinkretisme is eintlik geformaliseer en nagestreef op grond van 'n teorie genaamd Honji Suijaku 本地 垂 迹, met Shinto kami (godhede) erken as manifestasies (suijaku 垂 迹) van die oorspronklike Boeddhistiese goddelikhede (honji 本地 仏). In die latere Kamakura -tydperk het sommige Shinto -sektes die teenoorgestelde voorgestel en die Shinto -kami as honji en Boeddhistiese gode as suijaku uitgeroep. Die harmonisering van Shinto (inheemse Japannese godsdiens), met Boeddhisme (van Indië tot Japan via Korea en China) is Shinbutsu Shugo (Shuugou) genoem 神 仏 習 合. Volgens die Boeddhistiese leer kan 'n persoon wat goed gedoen het na die dood 'n deva (hemelse wese) word, mense aanmoedig om goed te doen en as 'n beskermer van Boeddhisme optree. Toe Boeddhisme in Japan bekendgestel is, is die Sanskrit -woord deva in Japannees as beide vertaal Tien 天 en as Kami 神 (Sjinto -godheid), om die verspreiding van die nuwe godsdiens onder die gewone mense te vergemaklik. Hierdie proses van sinkretisering het veral in die Nara -periode opvallend geword. Voordat Keiser Shomu (sien hierbo) die Big Birushana -Boeddha by die Todaiji -tempel in Nara bou, het hy eers die priester Gyoki beveel om die plan by die godin by Ise no Jingu -heiligdom aan te meld en 'n offer van oorblyfsels van die Boeddha te bring. Boeddhistiese geskrifte is ook aan die Usa Hachiman -heiligdom aangebied. Sinkretiese praktyke soos die bou van heiligdomme op tempels en pagodes in heiligdomme, en die lees van Boeddhistiese geskrifte voor Shinto kami of voorlegging aan heiligdomme, het onverpoos en kragtig voortgegaan totdat Shinto en Boeddhsim met geweld in die vroeë Meiji -periode geskei is (shinbutsu bunri 神 仏 分離). Die teorie van honji suijaku is ontwikkel deur hedendaagse geleerdes om hierdie verhouding, wat deur bewegings soos Shingon Shinto en Tendai Shinto gepropageer is, te verduidelik, met Shinto-praktyke wat noue bande ontwikkel het met Shingon Boeddhisme en Tendai Boeddhisme gedurende die Heian-periode.

Godsdienstige pelgrimstogte is ook in die middel van die Heian -era ingestel, dikwels deur priesters wat na China bedevaar het, waaronder Saichō, Kūkai, Ennin (+794 - 864) en Enchin (+814 - 891). Pelgrimstogte het daarna 'n blywende praktyk geword. Terselfdertyd het Lotus Sutra Meetings ” (hokke-e 法 華 絵) gewild geword onder die adel. Teen die laat 10de eeu is vergaderings bedoel vir die redding van die laer klasse. Shinto-heiligdomme het aangesluit, wat bygedra het tot die sinkretiese samesmelting van Kami-Boeddha van die dag. Byeenkomste vir die werkersklas was veral algemeen in die Kumano 熊 野 -streek.

Heian Boeddhisme en Sjinto-Boeddhistiese sinkretisme het gehelp om die grondslag te lê vir die wydverspreide verspreiding van Boeddhisme onder die massas in die 13de eeu. Sien Van die hof tot die vrymoedige boeddhisme in die Kamakura -tydperk.

LET WEL: Kunshistorici verdeel die Heian-era gewoonlik in twee periodes, die Early Heian (+794-897) en die Late Heian (+897-1185). Laasgenoemde tydperk word tipies uitgebeeld as 'n tydperk van agteruitgang in die artistieke invloed van China en 'n tydperk van verval in die mag van die Japannese keiserlike hof. Bestaande kunswerke uit die vroeë en laat Heian -tydperke dui egter op 'n konsekwente Japannese voorliefde vir innovasie en artistieke vryheid.

Gaan na kunswerke uit die Heian -periode, met 'n lang oorsig van Heian -kuns en talle foto's.

SHINTO VANDAG. Anders as Boeddhisme of Christendom, het die Japannese sjintoïsme geen stigter, geen sutra's, geen wetgewing, geen nougesette organisasie of priesterskap nie (daar is geen nonne nie). Daar is geen Shinto -hemel of 'n hiernamaals nie, geen ortodokse morele kode nie - slegs die sosiale etiket van die gemeenskap en 'n paar idees ontleen aan die konfuciaanse (Chinese) filosofie. Die Shinto -heelal is amoreel en onverskillig. Deug word nie altyd beloon nie, en boosheid word ook nie altyd gestraf nie.

Sjintopriesters volg geen pad na selfverwesenliking of verligting nie. Hulle heilige beswerings word gegee in 'n ou taal wat nie meer deur die leke verstaan ​​word nie. Die keiserlike familie en sy vroeëre toegepaste stelsel van keiseraanbidding ontken in wese onafhanklikheid van Japan se plaaslike heiligdomme. Priesters kan soms dien as raadgewers, maar hul belangrikste verpligtinge is deesdae om op te tree as tussenganger tussen die gode en die mense (die plaaslike gemeenskap), om heilige rituele uit te voer en om aandag te gee aan die plaaslike heiligdom (kami, wat 'n god of godin of afgestorwene wees wat goddelike status bereik het). Om amptelik as priester te werk, moet 'n individu 'n afspraak ontvang van die & quotAssociation of Shinto Shrines & quot - maar daar is geen sertifiserings- of kwalifikasiestelsel nie. Hierdie situasie ontstel nie die Japannese aanbidder of toevallige heiligdom nie. Vir hulle is dit die & quotway van die kami. & Quot; Keisers en heersers mag kom en gaan, maar die Japannese mense en hul aard sal konstant bly. Alle lewenskragte het 'n growwe en sagte geaardheid, almal is veeleisend en vergewe dan. Die onderliggende aard van die mense verander nie, die onderliggende & quotnatuur van die natuur & quot verander nie. Raadpleeg die Shinto -bladsye vir meer inligting oor die Shinto -tradisies van Japan.

  • Groner, Paul. Saicho: Die oprigting van die Japanese Tendai -skool. & quot; University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2371-0. Gepubliseer in jaar 2000 (oorspronklik gepubliseer in 1984 deur die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Berkeley). Groner-san is professor in godsdiensstudies aan die Universiteit van Virginia.
  • Groner, Paul. & quotA Middeleeuse Japannese lees van die Mo-ho Chih-Kuan: die plaas van die Kanko Ruijii in historiese konteks. & quot Japanese Journal of Religious Studies (1995) 22/1-2.
  • Geloof en sinkretisme: Saicho en skatte van Tendai. Gepubliseer Oktober 2005 deur die Yomiuri Shimbun. 'N Wonderlike uitstallingskatalogus ter herdenking van die 1200ste herdenking van die Tendai Boeddhistiese denominasie. Geredigeer deur kurators van die Kyoto National Museum en die Tokyo National Museum. Sterk aanbeveel, in Japannees, met Engelse aantekeninge en byskrifte vir 236 foto's in hierdie indrukwekkende katalogus (397 bladsye).
  • Skatte van 'n heilige berg. Kukai en Mount Koya. Die 1200-jarige herdenking van Kukai se besoek aan die Tang-dinastie, spesiale tentoonstellingskatalogus van die Kyoto National Museum. Gepubliseer 2005.
  • Kim, Yung-Hee. Liedjies om die stof te laat dans: The Ryojin Hisho van die twaalfde-eeuse Japan. Berkeley, CA. University of California Press, 1994.

    徳 太子
    Shoutoku word toegeskryf aan die bou van talle tempels, waaronder die beroemde Houryuuji (Horyu-ji) tempel 法 隆 寺 in Nara en Shitenno-ji tempel 四 天王寺 in Osaka.
    En no Gyouja
    www.aisf.or.jp/

  • Covell, Jon Carter en Covell, Alan. Koreaanse impak op die Japannese kultuur. Korea: Hollym International Corp., 1984.
  • Himiko en Japan se ontwykende hoofskap van Yamatai: argeologie, geskiedenis en mitologie, deur J. Edward, jr. Kidder (skrywer)
  • The Lucky Seventh: Early Horyu-ji and Its Time, deur J. Edward Kidder (ICU Hachiro Yuasa Memorial Museum, 1999)
  • Asuka Boeddhistiese kuns: Horyu-ji deur Seiichi Mizuno (Weatherhill, 1974)

Kopiereg 1995 - 2013. Mark Schumacher. E -posmerk.
Alle verhale en foto's, tensy anders vermeld, deur Schumacher.
www.onmarkproductions.com | 'n skenking maak

Moet asseblief nie hierdie bladsy of foto's na Wikipedia of elders kopieer sonder die regte aanhaling nie!


Yoshitomo Nara - Biografie en nalatenskap

Yoshitomo Nara, die jongste van drie seuns, het grootgeword in 'n landelike gemeenskap naby die stad Hirosaki, in die noordelike Japannese prefektuur Aomori. Sy pa en oupa was albei Sjinto -priesters, en later in sy loopbaan sou Nara sy eie inspirasie put uit die geestelike leerstellings van Shinto.

Alhoewel hy goeie herinneringe aan sy vroeë kinderjare het, het Nara se lewe dié van 'n enigste kind gekopieer. Sy ouers het besige skedules gewerk terwyl sy broers ongeveer tien jaar ouer was. Hy was 'n sensitiewe seun en het met moeilike emosies te kampe gehad en onthou: "Ek was eensaam en musiek en diere was 'n troos. Ek kon beter met diere kommunikeer, sonder woorde, as om verbaal met mense te kommunikeer". (Hy onthou dat hy by een keer ontsteld was oor 'n groep plaaslike seuns wat 'n miernes wou vernietig en geweier het om by hulle aan te sluit.) Young Nara verdiep hom in beide die Japannese en Amerikaanse popkultuur, laasgenoemde wat na die Tweede Wêreld in Japan oorstroom. Oorlog. Nara het inspirasie geneem uit verskillende bronne, waaronder prenteboeke (sy gunsteling was Die Klein Huisie deur die Amerikaanse skrywer Virginia Lee Burton) en sprokies, Amerikaanse strokiesprente, Disney- en Warner Brothers -tekenprente (veral Astro Boy, Gigantor, en Speed ​​Racer) en rock- en punkmusiek.

Nara het rekords per pos gekoop en die koste met vriende gedeel. Op die ouderdom van sestien het hy 'n kafee met 'n vriend in sy tuisdorp oopgemaak en as DJ daar gewerk. He was inspired, not only by the rebellious ethos communicated through punk music, but also by the visual culture of music. He explains that "There was no museum where I grew up so my exposure to art came from the album covers".

Nara began to create at a young age, first by sculpting forms out of clay (or even his own excrement) and then by experimenting with drawing. He remembers his first drawing vividly: "It was before nursery school. I drew on a blank page of a book that belonged to my father [. ] It was a picture of a curtained window looking out onto a landscape, drawn in red pencil. There was something very abstract about it. I think I drew pretty well as a child". In his teen years, he recalls being eager to paint a live nude model (and at being disappointed when that chance finally came and the model was an elderly woman).

Education and Early Training

Nara had originally planned to study literature, but after a friend praised one of his artworks, he decided to pursue a possible career as a painter instead. With the financial backing of his parents, Nara moved far away from his hometown to Nagakute to study at the Aichi Prefectural University of Fine Arts and Music, earning his Bachelor of Fine Arts in 1985, and his master of fine arts two years later.

Between 1988 and 1993 Nara lived in Germany where he undertook a six-year apprenticeship at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf (aka: The German State Academy of Arts) under the mentorship of German painter A.R. Penck. During this time he developed a keen interest in Neo-Expressionism and Punk music, while outside of his studies, he earned a living teaching art to high school students.

Nara adopted (as evident in early works such as Flaming Head (1989)) many of the emotionally-charged visual idioms of German Neo-Expressionism, such as the rough, expressive, even aggressive, brushstrokes and bold colors associated with the likes of Markus Lüpertz and Georg Baselitz. Nara took from Penck the use of heavy black outlines as seen, for instance, in his Die meisie met die mes in haar hand (1991). Nara recalled of his time in Düsseldorf: "I became literally 'alone' there. It strongly reminded me of the memory of my lonely childhood. I felt the city's cold and darkness, just like my hometown, and the atmosphere there reinforced my tendency to seclude myself from the outer world".

Even after the successful completion of his training, Nara felt unsure about the value of a career in art. He said, "All through university I was never sure that I wanted to be an artist by profession [. ] I went to art school because I could draw. It was [only] when I was teaching art . and I was telling all the students that 'this is how artists should be,' and so on [that] it occurred to me that one could draw as a way of finding oneself". It was this moment of self-realization that saw Nara commit to a career in art. Thus, in 1993, and still with only limited grasp of the German language, Nara moved to Köln (Cologne) where he set up a studio. He recalls feeling "very much isolated" but that that feeling of isolation helped him to evolve as an artist: "To be an artist, one might need to be deprived a bit of what he or she has taken for granted: accessibility to things and people, including language and a means of communication [. ] I needed a setting which would allow me to isolate myself from others to have a real conversation with the inner-me [. ] I found my style only after living in solitude". It was in Köln that Nara received his first meaningful exposure after drawing promotional posters for the Swedish family film Lotta Leaves Home (1993).

Mature Period

A series of collaborative projects in the late 1990s - including a book project with Japanese cult novelist Banana Yoshimoto, as well as commissions to design a CD jacket for Japanese punk band The Star Club, and for Japanese girl band Shonen Knife - propelled Nara into the public eye. He continued teaching during this period, however, working as a visiting professor at the University of California at Los Angeles in 1998. In 2000, Nara finally returned to Japan and worked to cement his career as a painter. He took over a two-story Tokyo warehouse. With its high ceilings and open layout, the warehouse doubled as a studio space and living space. Nara rarely cooked for himself, however, and dined most days at fast-food restaurants.

In 2001, Nara became associated with the Superflat movement, which included artists like Takashi Murakami and Chiho Aoshima. Superflat (sometimes referred to as "Japanese Pop Art") was a term coined by Murakami to describe a style of postmodern Japanese art that demonstrates a critical and ambivalent attitude toward pop culture and consumerism. In his personal Superflat style, Nara drew inspiration from traditional Japanese Otafuku and Okame theatrical masks, and Edo period ukiyo-e woodblock prints. The painterly quality and free-form, hand-drawn lines that characterize Nara's oeuvre also contrast sharply with the more "digital" aesthetic of Murakami's work.

Late Period

Nara notes that, "Up until [my twenties], I was really only focused on stuff I liked and was interested in. Then, entering into my thirties and forties, and becoming more of an adult, I started seeing more of the world and even seeing things that I didn't want to see. My perspective really opened up. Whether it was to do with society or the environment or the relationship between the two, my view of the world became much wider".

In 2009, Nara was celebrating the completion of a gallery show in New York in an East Village Punk bar called Niagara. Flushed with alcoholic inspiration, Nara drew a number of his signature punk figures directly onto the bar walls. Once finished (and before being arrested for drawing on a subway wall on his way home) he signed and dated his handiwork. While Nara's subway graffiti was quickly removed, his "dive bar mural" was preserved (behind a plastic screen) by the bar owners. The fact that the mural exists as a public artwork saw Nara connected with Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat both of whom produced works on buildings in the same East Village neighbourhood.

The devastating Fukushima earthquake and tsunami of 2011, which directly affected the Aomori prefecture where Nara grew up, had a profound impact on the artist. As he recalled, "I became unable to draw [. ] I was so depressed that I couldn't help feeling that what I'd been doing was totally meaningless and useless. No one needs art in an extreme situation, after all". Eventually, however, he saw people who had been displaced from their homes by the disaster beginning to return and rebuild their lives and it was this that inspired him to return to his own creative activities. As part of this process, he paid several visits to the devastated area before taking up a residency at his alma mater, the Aichi Prefectural University of Fine Arts and Music.

In 2013, Nara's career took a change of direction. As he recalled, "I felt uncomfortable with being given a certain label, whether it was positive or negative. And I remembered that I'd long forgotten how I had started my career. I realised that I'd long neglected the 'conversation with myself', which had been the foundation of my creative activity. So I quit collaboration works and started working with ceramics to restart the conversation". Around the same time, Nara's father passed away, which further contributed to his new-found sensibility: "In the past I would have an image that I wanted to create, and I would just do it. I would just get it finished. Now I take my time and work slowly and build up all these layers to find the best way. Just like you cook so that you know it's going to be the most delicious, you find a way to make your art the best it can be".

Since 2014, Nara has taken an interest in exploring his own roots, turning to photography to document his journey. For instance, he visited the abandoned mines, worked by his grandfather, on the Russian island of Sakhalin (formerly part of Japan). He remarks that, "Standing in front of these ruins, I really felt that I had made my artworks over all these years just to have this experience to find myself in front of this landscape [. ] What I saw was neither Japan nor Russia it was a place that is still in between. In fact, I am very interested today in places that are not one thing or another, that are between two things. So art for me was a big detour that finally allowed me to find what I was really looking for, what I really wanted to do. And when I met the local indigenous peoples, I really had the impression of meeting myself". More recently, and in homage to Takeshi Motai, a Japanese Showa-era picture book illustrator, Nara organized the 2017 exhibition "Takeshi Motai: The Dream Traveler" at the Chihiro Art Museum. It was Nara's way of acknowledging Motai as a significant influence in his own work: "Residing in day-to-day life, Takeshi Motai's aesthetic sense is paradoxically sublime. His artwork makes no distinctions between East and West it is pure spirit" he said.

Nara currently operates out of two studios in Germany and Japan. He likes to play "deafeningly loud" music including the Canadian rocker Neil Young, because Young "has a spirit of equality and freedom, bravely singing his songs that make us think what's around us". Nara has always kept to himself, and tries to avoid in-person interviews. He has stated "I'm not a teamwork type of person. I have no 'real or personal life' outside of my working life, like other people may have. Or at least, I'm not good at 'enjoying my life' after I've finished the work". He also avoids social media, as he sees it as a distraction to his artistic pursuits. He recently stated "I'm not really interested anymore in doing big things for mass media attention, but what interests me the most today is entertaining people from small communities with my work", adding that, "Whether I like it or not, the things I make are no longer self-portraits, but belong to the audience who find themselves, their friends or children they know in my paintings. My hope is that they will remain in the history of art [. ] that they will survive as long as humankind exists even if my physical body is destroyed".


Buddhism Becomes The Japanese State Religion

Buddhism had already arrived in Japan prior to the Nara period. It was introduced into the country during the 6 th century AD by Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. At that time, however, Buddhism did not fare very well in gaining converts, partly because it did not receive imperial patronage.

The fortunes of Buddhism changed during the Nara period, more specifically from the reign of Emperor Shomu onwards. Shomu, who ruled Japan from 724 to 749 AD, and his wife, Empress Komyo, were devout Buddhists. Therefore, they actively promoted the spread of Buddhism, strengthened Japanese institutions with this religion, and declared it the “guardian of the state.” Shomu was also responsible for the construction of Todai-ji (“Great Eastern Temple”) in Nara.

Todai-ji was completed in 752 AD, and is most notable for its main hall, the Daibutsuden (“Great Buddha Hall”), which houses a giant bronze statue of the Vairocana Buddha. For a long time, the Daibutsuden held the record as the world’s largest wooden building. It has been pointed out, however, that the current hall, which is a reconstruction from 1692, is only two-thirds the size of the one built by Shomu. As for the bronze statue, the Daibutsu, this seated Buddha rises to a height of 15 m (49.2 ft) and is one of the largest Buddha statues in Japan. Today, Todai-ji Temple is the most important landmark in Nara, and its most popular tourist attraction. During the Nara period, however, the temple was not only a religious site, but also a powerful institution, as it served as the head temple of all the provincial Buddhist temples in Japan.

Through their patronage of Buddhism, the status of the imperial family was raised. It should be mentioned, however, that the adoption of Buddhism also caused a rift between the upper and lower classes. This is stems from the fact that most commoners still practiced Shinto, Japan original animistic religion. In any event, the influence of Buddhism at the Japanese court continued, and even increased, during the reign of Empress Koken (known also as Empress Shotoku during her second reign), Shomu’s daughter and immediate successor.

Empress Koken / Shotoku, who had two different names for each of her reigning periods. ( Public domain )


8th Century, 701 to 800

702 Drawing from the Chinese and Confucianism, the Japanese have established new laws &ndash the Taiho Code. The emperor is seen as having supreme moral authority and as a benevolent ruler. His ministers and bureaucrats are viewed as agents of morality. It is believed that without this moral authority the immorality of feuding local lords would reign. Local lords, it is believed, should submit to the emperor's rule for the sake of peace. Accompanying this centralized authority, a national tax system is devised.

705 Empress Wu has proclaimed a new dynasty of her own family line. She has lowered taxes for farmers, and agricultural production has risen. She has strengthened public works. But by 705 she is in her old age and has lost control at court. Officials at court force her to resign in favor of a member of the Tang family &ndash the return of the Tang Dynasty.

708 In China, boiled water is safer to drink than untreated water, and tea becomes popular accompanied by the belief that tea has medicinal properties.

710 Japan's emperor moves the capital from Osaka to the city of Nara in order to avoid the pollution of his predecessor's death.

711 A Muslim army crosses the Strait of Gibraltar and begins a conquest of Spain. Jews welcome them as liberators. An Arab ship is plundered by pirates near the mouth of the Indus River, and the Arab governor in Mesopotamia retaliates, sending an expedition, said to include 6,000 horses and 6,000 camels, to conquer the rajas of Sind.

712 The new Tang emperor, Zhongzong, has died and his wife, Empress Wei, is suspected of having poisoned him. She has tried to rule as had Empress Wu. She has sold offices and Buddhist monkhoods. She has created enemies whom she has failed to exterminate, and they oust her from power.

717 Arabs have conquered eastward across land to the western border of China. They have conquered Lisbon and in the Caucasus, including Armenia. Caliph Omar II grants tax exemption to all believers. Wealth has been gathered from looting the wealthy during conquests and by taxing non-Muslims.

718 Constantinople, ably led by a general called Leo the Isaurian, has held off Muslim attacks by land and sea for more than a year. Leo is now Emperor Leo III. South-Central Europe is to remain Christian.

722 Emperor Leo III forces conversion of Constantinople's Jews.

726 Emperor Leo III issues an edict against the worship of icons, seeing it as the main reason Jews and Muslims cannot be won to Christ. The cross is to be maintained as the symbol for Christianity, but worship with other images, including those of Jesus, are not permitted.

731 English historian and theologian, Bede, writes his Ecclesiastical History. He beings numbering the years from the time of Christ rather than from the reign of kings &ndash his numbering to be divided between BC and AD (or BCE and CE).

732 Muslims were making piratical raids from Spain northward across the Pyrenees into territory of the Franks. Charles Martel leads an army that defeats a Muslim army led by Abd-er-Rahman &ndash who was not on a mission to conquer all of Christendom.

737 For two years Japan has been suffering from a small pox epidemic. Perhaps as much as one-third of the population has perished.

745 China has accomplishments in poetry, painting, printing and is a vast empire, but its monarchical system tends toward failure. The Tang emperor since 712, Xuanzong, has fallen under the spell of his son's wife, Yang Guifei, a Taoist priestess. Emperor Xuanzong is ignoring the economy and China is again declining.

750 Sometime around this year Mexico's great city of Teotihuacan (Teotihuacán) is among those cities destroyed and left in ruins, its great palaces burned to the ground. The city's population is reduced to a few people living in hovels in a few sections of the city.

750 The Umayyad caliphs have lost people willing to fight for them. They have been overthrown by an army of mixed nationalities from Khurasan (east of Persia). The last Umayyad, Marwan II, is beheaded and his relatives are murdered. The new caliph is Abu-Abbas al-Sarah. Rule by the Abbasid caliphs has begun. The Abbasids begin ruling with a show of Islamic piety, and they talk of reforms. They give prominence in state affairs to Islamic theologians and experts in Islamic law.

750 Arabian mathematicians begin using numbers that originated in India, are an advance of Roman numerals and that Muslims will pass to Europeans.

751 An Islamic army in Central Asia defeats the Chinese (at the Battle of Atlakh). Muslims replace the Chinese as the dominant influence along the Silk Road.

751 The last Merovingian king of the Franks, Childeric III, is deposed. The Merovingians had ruled as they pleased, including enforcing what they thought was their right to deflower a commoner's bride before he was allowed to consummate his marriage. A new dynasty, the Carolingians, is begun by Pepin the Short, the son of Charles Martel.

755 Alliances and trade between Mayan city-states have begun to break down. Malnutrition is on the rise. A diminishing food supply might be creating social upheaval and war.

756 Abd Ar-Rahman, an Umayyad prince, has escaped slaughter by the Abbasids and establishes himself as emir at Cordoba, Spain.

763 Mansur moves the Abbasid capital to Baghdad.

767 In Persia, Muqanna leads thousands against the Abbasids, robbing caravans and destroying Mosques.

768 Charles, eldest son of Pepin III (Pepin the Short), inherits half of his father's Frankish empire.

770 The Fujiwara family removes Empress Shotoku from power. She had fallen in love with a Buddhist monk, Kokyo, whom she had promoted as her chief minister. Nara Society was shocked. Henceforth women are exempted from imperial succession.

771 Charles becomes king of all of his father's empire. He is a devout Christian and to have four wives and children by five mistresses.

772 Charles, eventually to be known as Charles the Great (Charlemagne in French), begins thirty years of conquest and rebuilding the empire of the Franks, with an infantry carrying axes, spears and shields of wood and leather.

774 Charlemagne overruns the Lombards in northern Italy. He divides Lombard territory with the Pope, creating the Papal States.

775 Charlemagne begins his war against the Saxons in Germany, with slaughter and forced conversions to Christianity.

780 At Constantinople, Byzantium's Emperor Leo IV dies, and his wife, Irene, becomes regent for his son, who is ten. Leo's brothers, called Caesars, begin to plot for power, but Irene has them whipped, their heads shaved and banished.

784 The Japanese begin a war against the Ainu &ndash in the north on the main island of Honshu. The new emperor, Kammu, wishes to be free of influence from the Buddhist monasteries around Nara, and he moves his court thirty-five miles from Nara, to Nagaoka,

787 Empress Irene convenes the 7th Ecumenical Council, which refutes the iconoclasm begun by Constantinople's Emperor Leo III in 726. Among the masses and many clerics the worship of relics has persisted. The torturing, blinding and banishment of relic worshippers has ended. It is widely believed that the previously outlawed images work miraculous cures.

787 Charlemagne, king of the Franks, is learning to read, and he reproaches ecclesiastics for their uncouth language and "unlettered tongues." In hope of creating an educated clergy he orders every cathedral and monastery to establish a school where clergy and laity can learn to read. His rule includes land for nobles who provide him with military service. He depends on the allegiance of distant counts, dukes and bishops within his realm, men with some independence because of the distance and slowness of communications.

788 Indian philosopher Shankara develops a philosophical system that equates soul with God.

789 A Shia kingdom is established in Morocco independent of the caliph in Baghdad.

791 Buddhism becomes Tiber's official religion.

793 By boat, Scandinavians reach the island of Lindisfarne, Scotland. They kill monks and loot the monastery there. It is the first recorded raid by those to be called Vikings.

794 In Japan, disease and death of an heir to the throne are perceived as bad omens. They royal family believes that the spirit of the dead needs to be placated. The emperor, Kammu, moves his family from a palace considered contaminated to a new capital, Heian-kyo, to be renamed Kyoto.

797 At Constantinople, the Mother Empress, Irene (now between 42 and 47), and her emperor son, Constantine IV (now 27), have been competing for power. Irene has won. She has her son blinded and exiled.

800 In central Mexico around this time, give or take a couple of decades or so, at Teotihuacan, structures belonging to the elites of the city are burned to the ground.

800 Charlemagne is crowned by Pope Leo III, who hails him as "Augustus, crowned of God …emperor of the Romans."


Japan 750 CE

In Japan, a state modelled on Chinese lines has emerged.

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What is happening in Japan in 750CE

The Japanese are rapidly becoming one of the most highly civilized nations in the world at this time, borrowing many elements from Chinese culture: script, artistic and architectural styles, and the Confucian education system. Buddhism is also making great headway. The imperial court of Japan is modelled directly on that of Tang China, and the Japanese government has started sending emissaries to the Tang emperor.

The Taika reforms (646) aimed at creating a Chinese-type state. A Confucian bureaucracy was established, along Chinese lines, and a centralized revenue-collection system set up. All land was claimed to belong to the emperor large estates were abolished and some land redistributed to peasants.

In 710 a new capital, Nara, was built, modelled on the Tang capital of Chang-an, and this period in Japanese history is known as the Nara period.


Heian period

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Heian period, in Japanese history, the period between 794 and 1185, named for the location of the imperial capital, which was moved from Nara to Heian-kyō (Kyōto) in 794.

The Chinese pattern of centralized government that was first adopted in the Nara period (710–784) gradually changed as the growth of private estates (shoen), exempt from taxation, encroached upon the public domain and reduced the substance of state administration. From the mid-9th century the court was dominated by members of the Fujiwara family, who controlled the imperial line as regents by marrying their daughters to imperial heirs. Their influence reached its peak under Fujiwara Michinaga, who dominated the court from 995 to 1027, but then declined as a succession of non-Fujiwara emperors came to power. A new centre of authority emerged in 1086 when Emperor Shirakawa retired early and established a cloistered regime (insei) to rule behind the throne, a system continued sporadically by later emperors.

The period was characterized by the flourishing culture of the court aristocracy, which actively engaged in the pursuit of aesthetic refinement, leading to new developments in art and literature. Lady Murasaki Shikibu’s 11th-century novel, The Tale of Genji, is a brilliant record of life among the nobility and is considered one of the great works of world literature. In religion the esoteric sects of Tendai and Shingon Buddhism practiced formalistic rites that paralleled elaborate court ritual. The doctrines of the True Pure Land sect, emphasizing simple faith in Buddha Amida, also grew in popularity. These doctrines offered solace to the populace during the social upheaval that occurred in the late Heian period, which was marked by local disturbances and armed struggle among provincial military bands. This strife reached the capital itself in 1156, when warriors of the Taira and Minamoto clans backed rival claimants to the throne. The Taira were victorious, and they maintained tenuous control over the court until 1185. Sien ook Fujiwara style.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Virginia Gorlinski, Associate Editor.


History History of Kyoto

The history of Kyoto (京都) starts as early as the eighth century CE when the city became the capital of Japan and home to the imperial court from 794 to 1868. Today, it is the capital of Kyoto Prefecture. Rich in historical sites, relics and monuments, the city attracts more than 30 million visitors every year.

Although archaeological sites dating from the Jōmon (10,000 to 300 BCE) and Yayoi (300 BCE to 300 CE) periods have been found in and around Kyōto, the Kyōto fault basin was first settled in the sixth century by the Hata clan (秦氏), immigrants from Korea. Members of the clan were skilled in silkworm culture and silk weaving and amassed great wealth through their trade in silk products. In 603 Kōryū-ji (広隆寺), the family temple of the Hata was constructed at Uzamasa in the western part of the basin. The temple is therefore sometimes referred to as Uzumasa-dera (太秦寺) or Hatanokimi-dera (秦公寺). The northern part was also developed early on as the residence of such powerful families as the Kamo, Izumo, and the Ono.

However, it was not until 794 that Kyōto or Heiankyō (平安京), as it was then called, became the capital. The plan of the new city, like that of Heijōkyō (平城京) in Nara, was patterned after the Tang (T’ang) dynasty (618-907) capital of Chang’an (Ch’ang-an, modern-day Xi’an). Its rectangular shape measured four and a half kilometres east to west and 5.2 kilometres north to south. Kyōto gradually expanded eastward across the Kamo River (鴨川 Kamo-gawa), and the Heian residences of the influential Fujiwara and Taira clans were constructed in Shirakawa and Rokuhara in central Kyōto.

During the Kamakura Period (1185-1333), the city was temporarily eclipsed as the centre of national power, when Minamoto no Yoritomo (源 頼朝, 1147-1199) gained political ascendancy and established a shogunate in Kamakura. In the Muromachi Period (1333-1568), a shogunate was established for the first time in Kyōto, and again the city became the centre of the political power. It was during this period that many significant temples were built, such as Tenryū-ji (天龍寺), Nanzen-ji (南禅寺), Kinkaku-ji (金閣寺), and Ginkakuji (銀閣寺). The construction of new temples in Kyōto had long been prohibited within the boundaries of Heiankyō due to what was considered an undue influence of religious institutions in Nara. Only after the spread of Buddhist sects in the Kamakura Period did the building of temples in Kyōto increase. A large part of the city was destroyed during the Ōnin War (応仁の乱 Ōnin no Ran, 1467–1477), marking the end of the Muromachi Period.

After almost hundred years of civil war, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (豊臣秀吉, 1536/37-1598) succeeded in unifying the country. In 1590, he embarked on an ambitious building programme which included the lavishly decorated Jurakutei (聚楽第) palace and Fushimi Castle (伏見城 Fushimi-jō) along Yodo River (淀川).

During the Edo period (1600-1868), the Tokugawa shogunate was firmly established in Edo (present-day Tōkyō), and the political focus of the country once again shifted away from Kyōto. However, the Rokuhara Tandai (六波羅探題), who had been stationed in Kyōto as shogunal representatives since the transfer of political authority to Kamakura, continued to be appointed. In 1603, the shogunate completed Nijō Castle (二条城 Nijō-jō) to serve as a temporary residence to the shogun. In the peaceful years of the Edo Period, Kyōto prospered as a centre of arts, commerce, and religion. Local crafts such as nishijin-ori (西陣織, brocade), yūzen-zome, a resist-dyeing technique, pottery, lacquerware, doll making, and fan making. Quite a few merchants of the dry-goods dealers guild (株仲間 kabunakama) lent money to daimyō or the shogunate.

Kyōto was very much affected by the transfer of the capital to Tōkyō after the Meiji Restoration in 1868. In order to compensate for this blow, the city launched a rapid program of modernization: in 1890, the Lake Biwa Canal (琵琶湖疎水 Biwako Sosui) was completed the first hydroelectric plant of Japan was constructed at Keage in the northeastern section of the city, and in 1895 the first streetcars in Japan began operation in Kyōto.

Historical map of Kyoto, click to download the full-sized map

Kyoto Today

The city was slow in developing modern industries, as it lacks a harbour and surrounding open land, but has become a part of the Hanshin Industrial Zone (阪神工業地帯 Hanshin Kōgyō Chitai), and home to numerous electric, machinery, and chemical plants. Its traditional industries continue to flourish to some extent. Fushimi is known for its outstanding sake. The city is an educational centre, hosting thirty-seven universities and private institutes of higher learning, including Kyoto University, the Kyoto Institute of Technology, Doshisha University, and Ritsumeikan University.

Kyōto has over fifty museums, the most famous of which is the Kyoto National Museum, established in 1889 and one of the three formerly imperially-mandated art museums in Japan. The Kyoto International Conference Center was established in 1966, the new Kyoto Station Building, opened in 1997 and designed by artist Hiroshi Hara, marked the 1200th anniversary of the capital’s foundation in Kyōto.


Kyk die video: Nara - Ser u Bajanum. Official Music Video. Full HD (Desember 2021).