Geskiedenis Podcasts

Sherman sluit Savannah in

Sherman sluit Savannah in



Jaar opgerig:
2010

Merker teks: Een myl noord, op 9 Desember 1864, tydens die Amerikaanse Burgeroorlog, het die Amerikaanse genl Jeff. C. Davis kruis Ebenezer Creek met sy 14de Army Corps toe dit vorder na Savannah tydens genl William T. Sherman ’s March to the Sea. Davis het haastig die pontbrue oor die spruit verwyder, en honderde vrygelate slawe na sy leër het verdrink en probeer om die geswelde waters te swem om aan die agtervolgende Konfederate te ontsnap. Na 'n openbare geskreeu het art. Oorlog Edwin Stanton ontmoet Sherman en plaaslike swart leiers in Savannah op 12 Januarie 1865. Vier dae later keur president Lincoln die spesiale veldopdragte nr. 15 van Sherman goed, beslag lê op meer as 400 000 hektaar kuseiendom en herverdeel dit aan voormalige slawe in Terreine van 40 hektaar.

Opgerig vir die Burgeroorlog 150 herdenking deur die Georgia Historical Society en die Georgia Department of Economic Development

Verken die historiese merkers van Georgië

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Navorsingsentrum (Savannah):
Tydelik gesluit weens opknapping.
GHS digitale argiefhulpbronne beskikbaar by Georgiahistory.com/research.


Die Georgia Historical Society het sy elfde opeenvolgende 4-ster-gradering ontvang van Charity Navigator, die grootste liefdadigheidsbeoordelaar in Amerika, vir gesonde fiskale bestuur en toewyding tot verantwoordbaarheid en deursigtigheid, 'n onderskeid wat die genootskap onder 1% van die nie- winsorganisasies in Amerika.


Sherman sluit Savannah toe - GESKIEDENIS

Sherman in Georgië!

ONMIDDELLIK na sy terugkeer na Atlanta van Jonesboro, het Sherman besluit om van daardie stad 'n militêre kamp te maak, en het bevele daarvolgens uitgereik. "Die stad Atlanta," lees hierdie bevele, "wat uitsluitlik vir oorlogsdoeleindes benodig word, sal onmiddellik deur almal behalwe die leërs van die Verenigde State en die burgerlike werknemers wat deur die regte departement van die regering behoue ​​bly, ontruim word." is opdrag gegee om alle soorte geboue en alle voorwerpe soos katoen en tabak in besit te neem. Die hoofingenieur sou die stad en voorstede herken vir 'n meer gekontrakteerde verdedigingslinie, en die geboue aanwys wat verniel moes word om plek te maak vir sy bedrywighede. Die oorblywende geboue sou vir verskillende militêre doeleindes afgesonder word, en onder leiding van die kwartiermeester sou die troepe toegelaat word om geboue af te trek en die materiaal te gebruik vir die bou van stoepe en bivakies. Die burgemeester, James M. Calhoun, was verplig om die volgende afkondiging op 8 September uit te reik:

Aan die burgers van Atlanta: generaal Sherman gee my die opdrag om vir u te sê dat u almal Atlanta moet verlaat dat soveel van u as wat Noord wil, dit kan doen, en dat soveel as wat suid wil gaan dit kan doen, en dat almal kan hul roerende goed, insluitend bediendes, saamneem as hulle wil gaan, maar dat geen geweld gebruik moet word nie en dat hy vervoer sal voorsien vir persone en eiendom tot by Rough and Ready, vanwaar dit verwag word dat General Hood sal help om dit voort te sit. Net soos vervoer word voorsien vir mense en eiendom wat noordwaarts gaan, en dit word vereis dat alle dinge wat in hierdie kennisgewing beoog word, so gou as moontlik uitgevoer word.

In 'n brief aan generaal Hood skryf Sherman dat hy dit as 'n belang van die Verenigde State beskou wat alle burgers wat nou in Atlanta woon, moet verwyder, waarop Hood geantwoord het: 'Hierdie ongekende maatstaf styg in bestudeerde en vernuftige wreedheid alle dade ooit voordat hy in die duistere oorlogsgeskiedenis onder my aandag gebring is. daardie doel. Terselfdertyd is onderhandelinge geopen vir die uitruil van gevangenes. Op die 10de het goewerneur Brown namens die burgermag generaal Hood toegespreek en gesê dat hulle hul huise sonder voorbereiding verlaat het, maar slegs 'n kort tydjie wou dien, en dat hulle toegelaat moes word om hulle te besoek.
Hood se terugkeer vir 10 September toon 'n effektiewe totaal van 8 417 in Hardee se korps, 7 401 in Lee's, 8 849 in Stewart, 24,667 infanterie. Jackson het 3,794 effektiewe kavallerie gehad, en Wheeler was in die noorde van Alabama. Die artillerie met die weermag het 3 382 mans ingesluit, wat die totale effektiewe mag (uitgesluit bevel van Wheeler, afwesig op 'n ekspedisie) gemaak het, 31,843. Die totale teenwoordigheid is gerapporteer op 60 000, maar afgetrek van Wheeler se 11 237, toon teenwoordigheid met Hood op bogenoemde datum 49 137 van alle arms.
Op die 11de kap telegraveer Bragg, nou te Richmond, dat hy so gou as moontlik aan die linkerkant wil beweeg om die kommunikasie van Sherman te onderbreek. In ooreenstemming met hierdie plan is Wheeler aangesê om weer noord -Georgië binne te gaan, die spoorlyn suid van Dalton te vernietig en kontak te maak met Jackson, wat oor die Chattahoochee gestuur sou word. Wheeler het die bevele onmiddellik gehoorsaam en weer 'n onderbreking van 'n week of twee op die Western & amp Atlantic -spoorweg veroorsaak. Op die 18de, nadat hy veroorsaak het dat die yster vir 'n afstand van veertig myl van die spoorweë na Atlanta verwyder is en die spoorwegvoorraad na die West Point -spoorlyn herstel is, begin Hood met sy beweging na links. Hy het van Palmetto na die Chattahoochee -rivier ingeneem en tien dae daar gewag op die ophoping van voorraad. In hierdie posisie het hy Augusta en Macon blootgestel, maar hy hoop om hulle te red deur sy voorgestelde flankmars. Op die 22ste dag het hy vir generaal Bragg meegedeel dat as Sherman nie suidwaarts sou beweeg nie, hy die Chattahoochee sou oorsteek en 'n geveg sou vorm naby Powder Springs, wat Sherman sou verhinder om die spoorlyn in sy agterkant te gebruik, & quotand dwing om my af te ry of suid te trek , as ek op sy rug val. & quot
Gedurende hierdie maand het Sherman die idee bedink dat Georgië polities geïsoleer kan wees van die ander state in die Konfederasie. Omdat hy geweet het dat visepresident Stephens en goewerneur Brown, albei invloedryke leiers in Georgië, die president teëgestaan ​​het in 'n paar beleidsaangeleenthede, het Sherman die idee gekry dat daar so 'n vyandigheid teenoor Davis in Georgië was dat hy hierdie vername manne kon vermaak 'n voorstel vir vrede, of selfs om die staat aan te beveel om hom uit die konfederasie te onttrek om verdere vernietiging van sy materiële belange te voorkom. Op grond van hierdie idee het Sherman ambassadeurs na Stephens en Brown gestuur, maar hoewel hulle bereid was om 'n eerbare vrede te bevorder, wou hulle geen oneerlike voorstel vir onafhanklike staatsoptrede oorweeg nie, en weier om die federale bevelvoerder te besoek op die voorwaardes deur hom. Hulle was vasbeslote om getrou te bly aan die Konfederasie, hoewel die vooruitsig op sy sake baie somber was.
President Davis, vergesel van senator Hill, het nou na Georgië gekom en 'n toespraak in Macon gehou waarin hy probeer het om sy eie onwankelbare gees aan sy hoorders te kommunikeer. Op die 25ste en 26ste besoek die president die weermag en word entoesiasties deur die troepe ontvang.
Tydens hierdie besoek is luitenant-generaal Hardee vervang deur generaal-majoor Cheatham, en op 5 Oktober is bevel gegee oor die departement van Suid-Carolina, Georgia en Florida, wat onder leiding van genl.maj. Samuel Jones sedert 20 April. Genl Howell Cobb is in bevel van die distrik Georgia geneem.
Op 29 September begin Hood sy noordwaartse beweging met die hele leër, oor die Chattahoochee, en die volgende dag beweeg hy na die lyn van Dallas en Marietta, met Jackson se kavallerie by Powder Springs.
Sherman was terdeë daarvan bewus dat hy nie met sy groot leër in Atlanta kon bly nie, afhangende van die Westelike en Atlantiese spoorweg vir voorraad. Hy voel ook nie in staat om suid teen Hood te beweeg nie. Hy het veronderstel dat Forrest sy spoorweg sou afsny, maar hy kon nie help nie, want Forrest kon 100 myl aflê terwyl sy eie kavallerie 10 gaan. & Ek het twee afdelings na Chattanooga en een na Rome gestuur, en Thomas het vandag begin Om Tennessee uit die weg te ruim. & quot Sodra hy in kennis gestel is van Hood se oorsteek van die Chattahoochee na sy agterkant, het Sherman generaal Slocum en sy korps verlaat om Atlanta en die Chattahoochee -brug te bewaak, en het noordwaarts begin op soek na Hood met vyf korps.
Hood bereik die omgewing van die verlore berg op die 3d, en op die 4de generaal het Stewart se korps die spoorweg by Acworth en Big Shanty getref en 400 gevangenes en 'n paar winkels gevange geneem. Die afdeling van generaal-majoor French, ongeveer 3000 sterk, is gestuur teen Allatoona, een van Sherman se belangrikste depots, waar ongeveer 1 000 000 rantsoene geberg is. Die federale garnisoen van 890 man, onder kolonel Tourtellotte, is versterk deur genl John M. Corse met een brigade, 1 054 sterk, uit Rome, die bevele word hoofsaaklik oorgedra deur die seinstasies wat op die kruine van die heuwels en berge langs die federale lyn van kommunikasie.
Corse het Allatoona ongeveer 01:00 van die 5de bereik. Frans het omstreeks 03:00 opgedaag, oningelig oor die federale versterkings, en voor daglig, terwyl skermutselings met die piekies aan die gang was, probeer hulle om die rant te kry wat die stad beveel. Teen dagbreek hervat hy sy opmars, en teen 7:30 was die kop van sy kolom op die rif ongeveer 600 meter wes van die Federale werke, wat bestaan ​​uit drie redoubette ten weste van die diep spoorwegsny en 'n sterfort aan die oos, met buitekantwerke, abatis, stokke en ander obstruksies.- Intussen het generaal Corse sy magte in en voor sy versterkings beskik, met Tourtellotte in bevel oos van die snit. Frans het generaal Sears se brigade na die noorde van die werke gestuur, terwyl majoor Myrick met sy artillerie losgebrand het. Die plan was dat Sears die geveg sou begin, waarop genl. F. M. Cockrell se Missouri -brigade van die ander kant sou aanval, ondersteun deur vier Texas -regimente onder genl W. W. Young. Om 9 uur, toe die troepe in posisie was, stuur generaal French 'n dagvaarding in vir onvoorwaardelike oorgawe, om die onnodige bloedvloeiing te vermy, en gee vyf minute vir antwoord. Generaal Corse het geweier en die aanval het begin.
Die Missourians en Texans slaan die lyn wes van die sny onder bevel van kolonel Rowett, en na ernstige gevegte, sê Corse, het 'n deel van sy lyn soos soveel kaf teruggevee. Corse kon slegs onder dekking van 'n hewige brand van Tourtellotte 'n hulpverlener na versterkings stuur. Voordat hulle kon aankom, het Sears en Young, volgens Corse se verslag, met soveel krag en met soveel geweld aangerand dat hulle die lyn van Rowett kon breek, en sonder dat die nege-en-dertigste Iowa geveg het met die wanhoop wat dit gedoen het, sou ek nooit kon nie om 'n man weer in die twyfel te bring. & quot Na 'n desperate stryd het Rowett sy mag, die nege-en-dertigste Iowa, die sewende en die negentigste Illinois, in die redoubts gebring, waar hulle versterk is deur die twaalfde en vyftigste Illinois van die oostekant van die snit. Die Konfederate het twee van die redoubts wat Rowett in besit geneem het, omring en dan hierdie laaste werk omring met 'n storm van vuur. Tourtellotte, aan die oostekant, hoewel hy ernstig gewond was, kon sy hoofwerke behou, terwyl Sears naby die sterk posisie veg.
Omstreeks 10:00 het Sherman die berg Kenesaw bereik, en die rook gesien en die artillerie gehoor, het Corse beduie om die fort te hou en beveel dat die korps van J. D. Cox weswaarts die aansluiting van die Franse met die hoofkonfederale leër bedreig. Corse is self ernstig gewond, maar sy manne het onder die versekering van verligting geveg, totdat Fransmanne vroeg in die middag kennis gekry het van die dreigende beweging deur generaal Cox, wanhopig was om die federale garnisoen voor die nag te verminder en teruggetrek het om sy bevel te red, maar voordat hy die plek verlaat, het hy die blokhuis by die Allatoona -kreek gevang en die brug verbrand. Generaal Frans meld 'n gevangenskap van 205 gevangenes en twee vlae, en gee sy verlies aan 122 dood, 443 gewondes en 233 vermiste, altesaam 798. Generaal Young is gewond en gevange geneem, en byna 70 ander dapper offisiere is óf gewond óf gedood. Hierdie slagoffers is gely deur die Konfederale aanvalsmag van slegs 'n bietjie meer as 1 000. Corse het sy eie verlies aangemeld: 142 sterftes, 352 gewondes en 212 vermiste, altesaam 706.
Hood beweeg nou vinnig na Rome, en Sherman volg deur die Allatoona -pas na Kingston en daarvandaan na Rome, maar Hood steek onder die stad oor en marsjeer in die vallei van die Oostenaula, en ontsnap aan enige botsing behalwe tussen kavalerie. Die Konfederale opmars het Resaca aangeval en geëis dat hy oorgegee word, maar die federale garnisoen is betyds versterk vir veiligheid. Sherman het ook na Resaca gegaan, maar voor sy aankoms op die 14de het Hood die spoorlyn daarvandaan na Tunnel Hill vernietig en die garnisoene by die gaping Dalton, Tilton en Mill Creek gevang, in totaal ongeveer 1000 gevangenes. Sherman het in Snake Creek -gaping ingegaan, waardeur hy vyf maande tevore in die teenoorgestelde rigting gegaan het, en daar deur die Konfederale agterhoede vertraag. By die gaping van Ship het kolonel Ellison Capers, met sy regiment in Suid -Carolina, die federale opmars teruggehou totdat 'n deel van sy mag gevang is. So het Hood daarin geslaag om suid van Lafayette af in die Chattooga -vallei te beweeg, voordat Sherman hom kon onderskep, en laasgenoemde het gevolg na Gaylesville, Ala. ryk land waarheen Hood hom gelei het.
Op die 17de neem generaal Beauregard die bevel oor die nuwe militêre afdeling van die Weste, oos van die Mississippi, bestaande uit Hood se departement Tennessee en Georgia, en luitenant-generaal. Richard Taylor se afdeling-Ala-bama, Mississippi en Oos-Louisiana.
Teen die laaste van die maand het Hood sy leër oor Alabama na Tuscumbia verskuif, en Sherman, wat die korps van Stanley en Schofield en al die kavallerie, behalwe die Kilpatrick -afdeling, na Chattanooga gestuur het om by Thomas aan te meld, wat die opperbevel oor al die federale troepe gekry het. in Tennessee, het hy sy oorblywende drie korps terug na Kingston verskuif, waarna hy al die impedimenta teruggestuur het na Chattanooga, en hom voorberei op die lang optog wat hy nou beoog het. Op 11 November het hy Corse beveel om alles in Rome te vernietig wat nuttig kan wees vir 'n vyand, sowel as die spoorweë in en om Atlanta, en noordwaarts na die Etowah. Alle garnisoene van Kingston noordwaarts is beveel om terug te keer na Chattanooga. Omdat hy homself van agter afgesny het, konsentreer hy op 14 November rondom Atlanta, vier korpse infanterie, die regtervleuel onder Howard en die linkerkant onder Slocum, wat 60 000 infanterie omhels, en 5500 kavallerie onder Kilpatrick.
Op bevel van Sherman het kapt. OM Poe Atlanta deeglik verwoes, behalwe sy woonhuise en kerke. ' heeltemal tot as gereduseer. Geen pogings is aangewend om die verspreiding van die brand te voorkom nie, en byna geen struktuur is ontwerp nie. Slegs ongeveer 450 geboue het ontsnap aan hierdie genadelose brand, waaronder baie kerke, wat in daardie dae oor die algemeen van ander geboue afgestaan ​​het. Die deeglikheid van die vernietiging kan besef word, as ons in ag neem dat Atlanta by die telling van 1860 'n bevolking van 10 000 gehad het, wat in 1864 tot 14 000 toegeneem het. Meer as 4000 huise, waaronder wonings, winkels, winkels, meulens en depots, is ongeveer elf-twaalfdes van die stad verbrand. Kapt. Daniel Oakey, van die Tweede Massachusetts-vrywilligers, sê: & quot Sestigduisend van ons was getuie van die vernietiging van Atlanta, terwyl ons posgroep en die van die drie-en-dertigste Massachusetts gevegs- en operaseleksies gespeel het. & Quot Sherman het self kennis geneem van die stygende kolomme van rook toe hy van die stad af wegry. Aangesien hy sedert die 3de September in besit van die stad was, het hy genoeg tyd gehad om alles wat 'n vyand tot voordeel kan strek, heeltemal te vernietig, sonder die onbaatsugtige en onverskoonbare metode waarop hy hom aangewend het. Dit was uit militêre oogpunt nie meer nodig om handelsinstellings te vernietig as privaat wonings of kerke nie. Die vernietiging van Atlanta kan nooit verskoon word nie. Die naam van die federale bevelvoerder sal altyd verband hou met hierdie barbaarse daad.
Op 15 November begin die federale regtervleuel en kavallerie na Jonesboro en McDonough om 'n draai by Macon te maak, maar steek die Ocmulgee -rivier naby Jackson oor en bereik Gordon binne sewe dae. Slocum met een korps het via Decatur ooswaarts getrek, met bevele om die Oconee -brug, oos van Madison, te verbrand, waarna hy suid sou draai en binne sewe dae Milledgeville sou bereik. Sherman het self Atlanta verlaat op die 16de met Jeff C. Davis se korps en het via Lithonia en Covington, direk op Milledgeville, getrek. Sy doel was om sy leër tussen Macon en Augusta in te skakel en sodoende die Konfederale magte te verdeel.
Genl G. W. Smith, onder bevel van die Eerste afdeling, Georgia -reserwes, het by Lovejoy's Station 'n mag van ongeveer 2800 effektiewe infanterie, 200 of 300 kavallerie en drie batterye gehad. Brigadier-generaal Iverson met twee brigades kavallerie het sy voorkant bedek. Op die 12de het generaal-majoor Wheeler persoonlik aangekom en sy kavalleriedivisie het spoedig uit Alabama gevolg. Nadat die kavallerie met Howard se opmars geraak het, val Smith terug na Griffin, en daar leer hy van die federale bewegings ooswaarts, vinnig na Macon. Wheeler het generaals Bragg en Hardee, generaal Beauregard in Tuscumbia, genl Howell Cobb, generaal Taylor by Selma, generaal Hood en ander in kennis gestel van die vyand se bewegings en ooglopende bedoelings, en generaal Cobb het ook die hooggeplaastes in kennis gestel van die gevaar wat dreig . Generaal Cobb, in Macon, het maar 'n klein mag gehad, en versterkings is dringend gevra. Maar daar was min wat gespaar kon word. Beauregard kon net genl Richard Taylor stuur om die bevel oor te neem, en self volg, maar hy het geen magte om saam te neem nie. Die oorlogsdepartement het Hardee se bevel uitgebrei tot die Chattahoochee, maar hy kon slegs die vyfde Georgië spaar sonder om die kus te stroop. President Davis het generaal Cobb opdrag gegee om elke man wat diens kon lewer, uit te haal, en belowe dat kolonel Rains, in Augusta, torpedo's sal voorsien om in die paaie te plant. Senator Hill en die kongreslede in Georgië het 'n beroep op die mense van Georgië gedoen om na die wapen te vlieg, alle lewensonderhoud uit die loop van Sherman se leër te verwyder en te vernietig wat nie weggevoer kan word nie, alle brûe verbrand, paaie versper en die aanval aangeval indringer dag en nag.
Intussen het Sherman opgeruk en 'n verkoolde laan van meer as 40 myl breed deur die onbeskermde staat geskep, die spoorweë vernietig, alle besittings beslag gelê, geplunder, geplunder en gebrand. Daar was geen krag beskikbaar om sy koers verder te belemmer nie. Hy moes eenvoudig die militêre prestasie van 'marsjeer deur Georgië' behaal. ' Ses van sy mans het Clinton binnegedring en die dienaar van generaal Osterhaus, korpsbevelvoerder, gevange geneem met. in twintig voet se hoofkwartier. Oplading en teen-laai het gevolg, wat eindig in die afweer van 'n federale kavallerie-bevel deur Wheeler se begeleiding. Op die 20ste was daar aktiewe skermutseling deur Wheeler. Kilpatrick het gevorder tot by die afwykings oor Macon, wat deur die infanterie en die kavallerie afgeklim is, en die hoof van sy kolom het die werke binnegegaan, maar is afgeweer. Op die 22ste dag het Howard Gordon genader en Woods -afdeling en Kilpatrick se kavallerie na Macon gestuur vir nog 'n demonstrasie. Hierdie mag word deur Wheeler se manne ontmoet, wat vroegoggend aangekla het en een van die federale paaltjiesposte vasgevang het, wat die vyand ongeveer 60 laat verloor het. 'N Aansienlike kavaleriegeveg het gevolg, en die middag het Walcutt se federale brigade agter versperrings deur die Konfederale infanterie en 'n battery aangeval. met groot krag. Walcutt is gewond, maar het met behulp van kavallerie daarin geslaag om sy terrein vas te hou.
Op 'n ander deel van die invalslyn het die Federale Twintigste korps, wat slegs gekant was deur die botsing van klein Konfederale groepe, 'n pad van vernietiging deur Madison en Eatonton gemaak. Geary se afdeling vernietig die fyn spoorwegbrug oor die Oconee, en die meul en veerbote naby Buckhead. Op die 19de het hy ook ongeveer 500 bale katoen en 50 000 bossies mielies vernietig, meestal op die plantasie van kolonel Lee Jordan. Hierdie korps het Milledgeville op die 20ste binnegekom, en Davis se korps, vergesel van Sherman, het die volgende dag aangekom.
Die staatswetgewer het haastig verdaag en onder leiding van genl Ira R. Foster, kwartiermeester-generaal van die staat, is groot pogings aangewend om die staatseiendom en argiewe te verwyder, maar weens die skaarste aan waens en die gedemoraliseerde toestand van die mense, kon daar nie voldoende hulp verkry word nie. Aangesien die gevangenis vir die vervaardiging van wapens gebruik is en na verwagting vernietig sou word, het goewerneur Brown al die gevangenes vrygelaat en georganiseer in 'n gereeld bymekaargemaakte en uniforme bataljon onder kaptein Roberts, wat daarna goeie diens gelewer het in die verwydering eiendom en in die stryd.
By die aankoms van die Federale het twee regimente onder kolonel Hawley, van Wisconsin, die hoofstad beset en volgens sy eie verslag die spoorwegdepot, twee arsenale, 'n poeiermagasyn en ander openbare geboue en winkels verbrand en groot hoeveelhede vernietig wapens, ammunisie en sout. 'N Algemene plundering het gevolg op hierdie oorlogshandelinge. Daarna het die twee federale korps deur Hebron, Sandersville, Tennille en Louisville gestoot, en Howard se vleuel het die Oconee by Bali se veerboot oorgesteek en op 1 Desember in twee kolomme na die woonbuurt Sebastopol gevorder.
Howard het op hierdie datum berig dat hy die Ocmulgee -katoenmeulens vernietig het en sy leër uit die land voorsien het, wat hy vol voedsel en voer gevind het. Ek is jammer om te sê dat 'n hele paar privaat wonings wat die inwoners verlaat het, deur 'n brand verwoes is, maar sonder amptelike sanksie ook baie gevalle van die mees onverskoonbare en moedswillige dade, soos die oopbreek van stamme, die neem van 'n silwer bord, ens. Ek het maatreëls getref om dit te voorkom, en ek glo dat dit effektief sal wees. Die inwoners is oor die algemeen bang en glo ons duisend maal erger as ons. & Quot Die onnodige vernietiging het egter plaasgevind met selde pogings om die soldaat te weerhou van vernedering.
Toe Howard vorder, het genl H. C. Wayne, met die kadette van die Georgiese militêre instituut en 'n deel van die reservate, oor die Oconee geval. Majoor A. L. Hart-ridge in 'n dapper geveg verdedig die Oconee-spoorbrug. Die Federale by Macinton het daarin geslaag om generaal Hardee daar te hou met 'n paar magte in die agterkant, en die soortgelyke punt teenoor Augusta het genl. B. D. Fry aangehou, met ongeveer 4000 troepe. Op die 23ste dag het Austin, met die kadette, die spoorwegbrug teen die vyand suksesvol vasgehou, en Hartridge, by die veerboot, het 'n federale losband wat oor die rivier gedwing het, oor die rivier gery. Dit het die verwydering van die winkels uit Tennille moontlik gemaak. Gen. A. R. Wright het in hierdie kwartaal bevel geneem onder leiding van 'n telegram van president Davis, terwyl alle kommunikasie tussen die oostelike en westelike kant van die staat verbreek is. Augusta is versterk deur troepe onder generaals Chestnut en Gartrell uit Suid -Carolina. Beauregard, wat in Macon aangekom het, waar ook luitenant-generaal Taylor was, het berig dat Sherman ongetwyfeld op pad was see toe, om Grant te versterk, en hy het Hood opdrag gegee dat hy Thomas in die middel van Tennessee onmiddellik moes verpletter om Lee te verlig.
Op die 24ste het Wayne aan generaal McLaws gerapporteer dat die Federals hom by die Oconee -brug beskiet het, maar hy het tot in die nag hard geveg en die een kant van die brug vasgehou terwyl die vyand die ander aan die brand gesteek het. Uiteindelik het partytjies die rivier na regs en links oorgesteek, en hy moes sy paar honderd man terugtrek. Wheeler het op dieselfde dag die rivier na die suide oorgesteek en na die steun van die Konfederate verhuis.
Op die 25ste bereik generaal Bragg Augusta en neem bevel. Wheeler, wat deurstuur na Sandersville, versterk die plaaslike troepe wat met die federale kavallerie -opskudding teister, en dryf laasgenoemde terug met 'n mate van verlies. Op dieselfde aand, toe hy verneem dat Kilpatrick in die rigting van Augusta begin het, het hy Iverson verlaat voor die federale infanterie, en Kilpatrick om middernag ingehaal, het hom van die hoofweg van Augusta af gery. Hy het vinnig aangehou en die vyand verskeie kere getref, terwyl hy gevangenes gevange geneem het. Die pad is verlig met die skure en huise, katoenpype en mieliekrippe wat deur die Federale afgevuur is. Kilpatrick moes deur Waynesboro afdraai, waar hy die brug verwoes en die stad aan die brand steek, maar Wheeler het betyds opgedaag om die vlamme te blus. Buiten Waynesboro het Kilpatrick inderhaas 'n lyn versper wat Wheeler met groot gees aangeval het, terwyl Humes en Anderson op die flank aanval. Die vyand is in die pad gesteek en 'n groot aantal sterftes, gewondes en gevangenes verloor, terwyl generaal Kilpatrick self ontsnap het met die verlies van sy hoed. In 'n moeras is die geveg hernu en die vyand weer gestamp met die verlies van ongeveer 200. Kilpatrick, wat oor die Buckhead -spruit terugtrek, het die brug afgevuur, maar kon nie lank staan ​​nie, en Wheeler herstel die struktuur en stap in. agtervolging. Sy verslete troepe het nou 'n dag en 'n dag gery en baklei, maar voor die nag weer aangekom het, val hy die federale lyn agter hul versperrings aan en stuur hulle weer vlieg. "Gedurende die nag," het Wheeler berig, "het Kilpatrick die beskerming van sy infanterie gesoek, wat hy nie tydens die veldtog weer wou laat vaar nie."
Die derde periode van Sherman se vooruitgang, in die eerste tien dae van Desember, was in die rigting van Savannah in vyf kolomme: die veertiende korps onmiddellik suid van die rivier die Savannah, die sewentiende korps aan die noordekant van die Ogeechee, die twintigste middel tussen, en die Vyftiende in twee kolomme suid van die Ogeechee, die suidelike kolom wat deur Statesboro loop. Op 2 Desember stuur Sherman Kilpatrick weer uit na Waynesboro, ondersteun deur Baird se infanterie -afdeling. Wheeler het die vordering by Rocky creek nagegaan, maar is van hierdie posisie af geflankeer. Die volgende dag val hy die vyand van krag, en hernu die aanval om middernag. Op die 3de vorder die Federals, en Wheeler gooi versperrings op en wanhopig veg, maar word teruggestoot na Waynesboro. Hier was hy so sterk ingedruk dat dit moeilik was dat hy uit sy posisie kon terugtrek, maar 'n dapper beskuldiging van Texans en Tennesseërs het hom in staat gestel om veilig terug te trek. Die res van sy bedrywighede het hoofsaaklik bestaan ​​uit aanhoudende aanvalle op die federale agterkant. Nadat hy Savannah naby genader het, het hy Iverson verlaat om die vyand aan die kant van Georgië dop te hou, terwyl hy na Suid -Carolina oorgesteek het en die kommunikasielyn gehou het vanaf Huger se landing na Hardeeville, om die New River -brug, oos van die Charleston -spoorweg te beskerm.
Wheeler het berig dat sy mag in hierdie veldtog nooit meer as 3500 man oorskry het nie, en dat hy selde meer as 2 000 in sy onmiddellike bevel gehad het. Die vyand het valslik deur hul offisiere in kennis gestel dat ons geen gevangenes geneem het nie, wat veroorsaak het dat hy met desperaatheid baklei het en baie gevaarlike handskoene gehardloop het om te ontsnap, wat gereeld die groot aantal doodmaak. In elke roete van hul kavalerie en in die vele gevegte wat gevolg het, het hulle voortgegaan om te vlug, en weier om oor te gee, ondanks die eise van ons manne wat nou gevolg was. Gevolglik was daar geen alternatief meer as om hulle te skiet of te sabel om ontsnapping te voorkom nie. & Quot Toe Sherman se linkervleuel nader kom, het die Charleston -spoorlyn naby die brug oor die Savannah -rivier getref en batterye opgerig. Die regtervleuel wat onmiddellik aankom, die Konfederale buitenwerke, wat ongeveer 4 myl bo die stad aan die Savannah begin en suidwes tot by die Little Ogeechee strek, is nou belê.
Genl. G. W. Smith, deur 'n gewaagde front by Griffin, Forsyth en Macon aan te bied, het Howard agtereenvolgens ongehinderd die plekke laat verbygaan. In Griswoldville het die staatstroepe, in stryd met Smith se bevele, 'n aanval op 'n ingeboude federale afdeling uitgevoer en is dit afgeweer met 'n verlies van 51 gedood en 472 gewond. Tog het hulle tot die donker naby die federale lyn gebly. Daarna is hulle na Macon teruggetrek en per motor na Albany en Thomasville na Savannah gestuur.
Alhoewel die troepe van generaal Smith nie vir diens buite die staat ingeroep het nie, marsjeer hulle in die laaste deel van November na Grahamville, SC, om die spoorlyn na Charleston te verdedig teen die operasies van generaal Foster, wat van Broad River gevorder het. Daar veg hulle dapper 30 November, in die slag by Honey Hill, om die herhaalde federale aanvalle te verslaan. Generaal Smith prys in sy verslag veral die diens van kolonel Willis, wat aan die bevel was van die eerste brigade van die Georgië-burgermag Major Cook, onder bevel van die bataljons van Athene en Augusta van reserwes, en luitenant-kolonel Edwards, onder bevel van die sewe-en-veertigste Georgië-regiment. Na hierdie briljante affêre keer die Georgia -burgermag terug na die staat. 'N Opmerklike kenmerk van hierdie geveg was die teenwoordigheid in die geledere van die Konfederate van 'n paar seuntjie -vrywilligers, selfs onder die ouderdom onderworpe aan diensplig. Sommige van hierdie seuns was nie lank genoeg om oor die parapet te skiet nie. Maar hulle was nuuskierig en ondernemend so ingerig dat die een op sy hande en knieë sou kom, 'n bank sou maak waarop 'n ander sou staan, sy vuur sou aflewer en dan plek sou verander met sy kameraad, sodat hy op sy beurt 'n skoot kon kry die & quot Yankees. & quot
Kragtige gevegte duur voort in die omgewing van Coosaw-hatchie, wat Hardee se enigste ontsnappingsweg bedreig, en 'n vloot van sestig vaartuie is by Hilton Head aangemeld. Dit bevat voorraad vir Sherman se manne, wat hoofsaaklik op rys bestaan ​​en dit onvoldoende gevind het. Hardee het gesien dat terugtog onvermydelik was en redelike vrees gehad het dat vertraging ontsnapping onmoontlik sou maak. Op die 8ste het generaal Beauregard hom aangeraai, aangesien daar geen leër van verligting te wagte was nie, wanneer dit ook al nodig was om te kies tussen die veiligheid van sy leër en die van die stad Savannah, om laasgenoemde op te offer.
One of the precautions taken by Hardee to prevent Sherman from cutting off his retreat into South Carolina was the sending of Flag-Officer W. W. Hunter up the Savannah river to destroy the Charleston and Savannah railroad bridge. Taking his flagship Sampson, the gunboat Macon and a small transport steamer laden with supplies, Hunter successfully accomplished his mission and then returned to Savannah. As he approached the city, however, he found the Federal batteries in position, and after a gallant attempt to pass, in which the transport was disabled and captured, he was compelled to take his two small wooden gunboats up the river. Taking advantage of unusually high water, he was enabled to pass the obstructions and reach Augusta, where he and the most of his command were finally surrendered under General Johnston's capitulation.
To open up communications with the Federal fleet, Howard marched farther south and rebuilt King's bridge, while Kilpatrick reconnoitered Fort McAllister, upon which fire was opened by DeGress' battery on the 13th. Hazen's division, which, with J. E. Smith's division, had marched by Statesboro where a number of their foragers had been killed and captured by Confederate cavalry, and later had forced a passage across the Canouchee opposed by Confederate infantry and artillery, was sent against Fort McAllister, the vicinity of which was reached about 11 a.m. on December 13th. They were delayed by the picket line and torpedoes in the road, and it was not until 4:45 that the assaulting column of nine regiments closed up around the fort, which was held by Maj. George W. Anderson and 250 men. General Hazen reported that the fort was carried at precisely 5 p. m. "At close quarters the fighting became desperate and deadly. Just outside the works a line of torpedoes had been placed, many of which were exploded by the tread of the troops, blowing many men to atoms, but the line moved on without checking, over, under and through abatis, ditches, palisading and parapet, fighting the garrison through the fort to their bomb-proofs, from which they still fought, and only succumbed as each man was individually overpowered." The report of General Hazen is as high a compliment as the brave Confederate garrison of Fort McAllister could desire. The Federal loss in the assault was 24 killed and 110 wounded.
Sherman, who was watching the assault from the rice mill, as soon as he saw the United States flag hoisted, went down the river in a boat, and observing a Federal vessel farther down the Ogeechee, went on and for the first time communicated with Dahlgren's fleet. Next day he met Dahlgren at Warsaw sound, and arranged that he should be furnished with siege guns for the reduction of the lines before Savannah. On the 17th he sent in from Slocum's headquarters on the Augusta road a demand for surrender, and on the following day received a refusal from General Hardee, who had about 15,000 troops, besides General Smith's 2,000 Georgia State troops occupying the intrenched line west of the city. Sherman, having next arranged for the assault by Slocum, went to Port Royal by boat to urge the movement against the Charleston & Savannah railroad. On the 21st he was informed, to his great disappointment, that Hardee had escaped into South Carolina.
A pontoon bridge, about half a mile in length, having been constructed from Hutchison's island across the Savannah, Hardee moved his army out in safety on the 21st, taking with him his artillery and baggage wagons, and made a secure retreat, one of the most successful in the course of the war. General Smith's command brought up the rear and was then transferred to Augusta.
Commodore Tattnall had been prevented from making a dash seaward with his fleet, the main strength of which was the armored ship Savannah, by the placing of seven monitors in the Savannah river and other channels of escape. The remainder of Admiral Dahlgren's fleet had bombarded Battery Beaulieu on Vernon river and other works on the Ogeechee and Ossabaw. Before the evacuation, Commodore Tattnall destroyed the ships and naval property, blowing up the water battery Georgia, burning and sinking the Milledgeville and Waterwitch, and destroying the navy yard and a large quantity of ship timber. An unfinished torpedo boat, the small steamers Beauregard and General Lee, 150 pieces of ordnance and 32,000 bales of cotton fell into the hands of the Federals. The Savannah was still in the river when the United States flag was hoisted over Fort Jackson, and Captain Brent, its commander, at once opened fire, driving the troops from the guns of the fort, and defiantly flying the stars and bars until night of the 21st. Brent then ran the Savannah over to the South Carolina shore, disembarked, that his crew might join Hardee's column, and at 10 o'clock the ironclad was blown up. General Slocum had discovered the evacuation at 3 a.m. on the 21st, and his command at once occupied the city.
In his report of the march to the sea, General Sherman declared that he had destroyed the railroads for more than 100 miles, and had consumed the corn and fodder in the region of country 30 miles on either side of a line from Atlanta to Savannah, as also the sweet potatoes, cattle, hogs, sheep and poultry, and carried away more than 10,000 horses and mules, as well as a countless number of slaves. "I estimate the damage done to the State of Georgia and its military resources at $100,000,000 at least $20,000,000 of which has inured to our advantage, and the remainder is simply waste and destruction." After admitting that "this may seem a hard species of warfare," he comforted himself with the reflection that it brought the sad realities of war home to those who supported it. Thus condoning all the outrages committed by an unrestrained army, he further reported that his men were "a little loose in foraging, and did some things they ought not to have done."
Howard, evidently ashamed of the manner of the marching through Georgia, claims that the "Sherman bummers" were not with his wing. He reported the capture of about 1,200 prisoners, 10,500 cattle, about $300,000 worth of subsistence, 931 horses, 1,850 mules, about 5,000,000 pounds each of corn and fodder, and the destruction of 3,500 bales of cotton and 191 miles of railroad. Slocum 'reported a similar amount of subsistence taken, 119 miles of railroad wrecked, 17,000 bales of cotton destroyed. The limits of this chapter do not permit of an adequate description of the ruin wrought throughout Georgia. The imagination, acting upon the basis of the outline here given, cannot exceed the reality.
In his message of February 17, 1865, Governor Brown, after recounting the destruction wrought by Sherman, said:

In these misfortunes Georgia has been taunted by some of the public journals of other States because her people did not drive back and destroy the enemy. Those who do us this injustice fail to state the well-known fact that of all the tens of thousands of veteran infantry, including most of the vigor and manhood of the State, which she had furnished for the Confederate service, but a single regiment, the Georgia regulars, of about 300 effective men, was permitted to be upon her soil during the march of General Sherman from her northeast border to the city of Savannah, and that gallant regiment was kept upon one of our islands most of the time and not permitted to unite with those who met the enemy. Nor were the places of our absent sons filled by troops from other States. One brigade of Confederate troops was sent by the President from North Carolina, which reached Georgia after her capital was in possession of the enemy. For eight months the Confederate reserves, reserve militia, detailed men, exempts, and most State officers, civil as well as military, had kept the field almost constantly, participating in every important fight from Kenesaw to Honey Hill. If the sons of Georgia under arms in other States had been permitted to meet the foe upon her own soil, without other assistance, General Sherman's army could never have passed from the mountains to the seaboard.

In conclusion, Governor Brown claimed that Georgia during the fall and winter had a larger proportion of her white male population under arms than any other State in the Confederacy.
Source: "The Confederate Military History," Volume 6, Chapter XVII


Day One

Orient Yourself to the Town
First, stop at the Tricentennial Park, housed in an antebellum train depot where Confederate troops would depart to the battlefields of North Virginia. The museum holds a collection of Civil War artifacts, so take some time to browse. Then, head next door to the Georgia State Railroad Museum, a former train repair facility that houses a model train and displays about the railway's importance in shaping Savannah's position as a Confederate power player.

Go on a Historic Home Tour
The Andrew Low House hosted Robert E. Lee and Union generals, and the Green-Meldrim House served as General Sherman's headquarters during his winter in Savannah. Most historic homes played some role in the occupation, so take a careful look at the outside plaques as you walk around town

Wander Down River Street
Steps from the water, and former home to cotton warehouses, this street was incredibly important for both sides. Try Vic's on the River, which used to be used as a housing and planning space by Sherman's officers in 1864

Sit Down to Dinner at a Former Civil War Hospital
45 Bistro is known for its' mouth-watering menu—and it's location, Marshall House, is known for it's role in the Civil War. Formerly a hotel, the house was turned into a hospital during Sherman's occupation.


Marker Text: General William Tecumseh Sherman used this house as headquarters from Dec. 22, 1864, until Feb. 1, 1865. Charles Green offered the use of his home to General Sherman and his staff. Sherman’s chaplain conducted the Christmas services in St. John’s Church. The house was built for Green, a British subject, residing in Savannah prior to 1854. The architect was John S. Norris of New York. The house is notable as one of the country’s finest examples of residential Gothic Revival architecture, the detail of the interiors being as sumptuous as any to be found in America. Cost of the construction of this house in the 1850s totaled $93,000.

In 1892 it was acquired from the Green family as a residence by Judge Peter W. Meldrim, distinguished Georgia jurist and President of the American Bar Association (1912-1913).

St. John’s Episcopal Church acquired the house from the Meldrim heirs in 1943 for use as a parish house and rectory. The house was purchased partly through public subscription by the citizens of Savannah. The house was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1976.

Explore Georgia’s Historical Markers

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Bound By A Plantation, Two Georgians Remember A Special Christmas

Martha McCullough shows off a photo of her grandfather, Christmas Moultrie, who was born on the Mulberry Grove Plantation before Gen. Sherman's army burned it down ahead of the capture of Savannah in 1864. Both McCullough and Hugh Golson, a descendant of the plantation's owner, knew Moultrie as children. Carl Elmore/Courtesy Savannah Morning News steek onderskrif weg

Martha McCullough shows off a photo of her grandfather, Christmas Moultrie, who was born on the Mulberry Grove Plantation before Gen. Sherman's army burned it down ahead of the capture of Savannah in 1864. Both McCullough and Hugh Golson, a descendant of the plantation's owner, knew Moultrie as children.

On Dec. 21, 1864, Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman captured the city of Savannah, ending his March to the Sea.

In the days leading up to Savannah's surrender to the Union, Sherman's troops burned the nearby Mulberry Grove Plantation. They also freed hundreds of slaves, including a baby boy who would grow up on the land as a free man.

Now, 150 years later, the descendants of some of the people living on that plantation still share a special connection to that man.

Hugh Golson, a retired history teacher, is a wiry white man in his mid-60s with bright blue eyes.

Martha McCullough, 87, is a former grade-school teacher. She's African-American, wearing a festive red sweater and hat at Golson's Victorian home in downtown Savannah. The house is filled with antiques, bookshelves and richly painted green walls covered in old photographs.

Hugh Golson stops next to the steps of what was once the main house of Mulberry Grove Plantation. His ancestor, Zachariah Winkler, once owned the plantation and watched as Gen. Sherman's army burned the house down. Steve Bisson/Courtesy Savannah Morning News steek onderskrif weg

Hugh Golson stops next to the steps of what was once the main house of Mulberry Grove Plantation. His ancestor, Zachariah Winkler, once owned the plantation and watched as Gen. Sherman's army burned the house down.

Golson holds up a small photo of a white man decked out in a gold watch.

"This is my ancestor that owned her grandfather," Golson says. "This is Zachariah Winkler, the master of Mulberry, the second-largest rice planter on the Savannah River."

It was taken, he says, in the studios of the famed photographer Matthew Brady. Another, larger snapshot depicts an older, African-American man, with a line of trees behind him, wearing a corduroy cap. That's McCullough's grandfather, Christmas Moultrie.

Golson says Moultrie was born on Christmas Day, 1863, a year before Sherman's men arrived. Some accounts, though, say he was born in the late 1850s.

"But this is the man that owned him and owned his parents. So I like to keep them together, and I like to have Christmas in the larger frame," Golson says.

Growing up in the 1930s and '40s, McCullough visited her grandfather at the old Mulberry plantation, where he'd been born in slavery. He stayed on and worked there much of his life, living mostly off the land.

'That Fascinating Man' — Caretaker, Moonshiner And Judge

"Oftentimes he would go hunting and fishing, and he was the caretaker," McCullough remembers.

McCullough and Golson say Moultrie also made a little money on the side, distilling and selling illegal moonshine on the property. Even after so many years, McCullough is still a little bashful about discussing it.

"You know, I might could say it now," she says. "I was a little girl taking moonshine liquor to the judges in the courthouse. I was this little black girl — "

" — bringing her granddaddy's wares," Golson says.

"Moonshine, in the courthouse," McCullough laughs. "How illegal!"

Moultrie mostly tried to keep his distance from the legal system, however. Growing up among the first generation of former slaves, Moultrie told his neighbors to work out disputes on their own, without involving white judges, McCullough says.

"Everyone had their problems," she says. "Any type of family problems, my grandfather was the judge. Christmas Moultrie [would] solve the problem."

As a young child, Golson also knew Moultrie, until Moultrie's death.

"He was an iconic figure to me," Golson says. "He was that fascinating man that lived right there at the gate, taking care of everything."

Moultrie was too young to remember it, but Sherman's arrival at Mulberry Grove in December 1864 is described in Savannah River Plantations, a book published in 1947 as part of the federal Works Progress Administration employment project.

Golson keeps a copy on his bookshelf. He says the account, which describes Sherman's troops burning down the plantation in front of Winkler as a slave stood guard, is similar to stories handed down in his family about the war.

"But Martha can tell us what was really happening at Mulberry," Golson says. "Her grandfather told her that those war years were hard, that they were hungry, that they didn't have much food. You better believe they held a gun on the man that made that happen."

'Trouble Don't Last Always'

McCullough says her grandfather also told her about moving on after hard times.

"I'm very grateful to God, that I let problems roll away like water off a duck back," McCullough says. "I say, 'Trouble don't last always.' That's my theme with my grandfather."

Though McCullough and Golson both grew up knowing Moultrie, and knew each other through their work as teachers, they didn't always know of their connection through him.

"We were sitting at the table together for probably a dozen years before we realized we had this old connection between us," Golson says.

In the early 1990s, they ran into each other at a meeting of a group trying to preserve Mulberry Grove as a historic site. That's when they connected the dots.

"It was fantastic to know that Hugh knew my grandfather," McCullough says. "I said, 'You knew my grandfather?' "

"That is the man that kind of bound us together," Golson says.

That bond, which began on a plantation near the end of the Civil War, is one they say they'll share for the rest of their lives, and beyond. Before McCullough leaves Golson's home, she has one request: "I'm going to ask Hugh to please . have something to say at my funeral."

"Anytime," Golson replies, "but Martha, you're presuming that I'm going to outlive you. It might be the other way, [the way] you're going. You might have to speak at my funeral."


In 1865, a meeting was held at the First African Baptist Church to discuss how the freed slaves were going to educate their community.

Leaders African American churches remained behind after the meeting to discuss the organization of schools. Together, they formed the Savannah Education Association (SEA). With funding from the community and assistance from Northern Education Aide Societies, the SEA provided free education for African-American students. This funding allowed for the building of the Beach Institute. The American Missionary Association the Freedmen’s Bureau helped in the construction.

The school was named in honor of inventor and editor of Scientific American, Alfred Ely Beach, who was a benefactor of the school. Now operated by the King-Tisdell College Foundation, the Beach Institute hosts award-winning exhibitions celebrating African-American art.

The Beach Institute is located at 502 E. Harris Street. For admission rates and hours, visit www.beachinstitute.org or call (912) 335-8868.

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A few decades after the founding of Savannah, it proved a strategic port city in the American Revolution and during the American Civil War. In 1778, the British took Savannah and held it until 1782. Eventually, a land-sea force of French and American troops reclaimed the city’s independence. After this turbulent time, Savannah saw a long period of agricultural flourish.

With rich soil and a favorable climate, Savannah and its surrounding land became home to cotton and rice fields as plantations and slavery became highly profitable systems. And the invention of the cotton gin on a nearby plantation meant that the city rivaled Charleston as a commercial port.


The History of The Marshall House - One of the Oldest Hotels in Savannah

During the railroad boom of the 1840s and 1850s Savannah doubled in size and population. Seeing a real need for accommodations and housing, business-woman Mary Marshall developed several properties in Savannah, most notably the iconic Marshall House hotel in 1851. Mary Marshall and her estate leased and collected rents from The Marshall House until 1914.

The hotel&rsquos colorful history spans 167 years, and includes roles as a hospital during the Yellow Fever Epidemics in the mid-1800s, and as a Union hospital during the final months of the Civil War.

The Marshall House was also home to Joel Chandler Harris, author of the famous Uncle Remus Stories during the Reconstruction Period. For economic and structural reasons, The Marshall House was closed in 1957. The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th floors were abandoned, but the ground floor was maintained for various shopkeepers and stores until 1998.

In 1999, The Marshall House was extensively restored, and once again became a Savannah fixture. Great efforts were taken to ensure the hallmarks of the historic hotel were preserved or recreated: including the Philadelphia Pressed Brick on the façade and the Savannah Grey Brick throughout, original staircases (some of the spindles and accents have been recreated), original wood floors, fireplaces, brick walls, the doors to each guest room, and several claw foot tubs dating back to 1880. The veranda and gas lights were reproduced in the likeness of the original features. The Courtyard Atrium was encased with a glass ceiling to give a sense of the area&rsquos previous use as a courtyard. Artifacts found during the restoration are encased in display cabinets on the second and third floor.


Savannah charms visitors with architecture, history and stories

Even if you’re a first-time visitor to Savannah, you might have a sense of deja vu here, thanks to all the writers and filmmakers who have featured this city in their books and movies. But in Savannah, the real thing is even more genteel, quirky and captivating than its fictional counterpoints.

The city was founded in 1733 by General James Oglethorpe, who laid out its streets on a grid pattern with wide streets and 24 public squares. His elegant design made Savannah one of the first planned cities in America. Twenty-two of those original squares remain today, havens of green filled with public art and surrounded by historic buildings. It’s said that the city was spared during the Civil War because Union Gen. William Sherman thought it so beautiful he couldn’t destroy it.

The best way to savor Savannah’s charms is on foot. A stroll along Bull Street will take you through the heart of the city’s historic district, which has a cornucopia of 18th- and 19th-century architectural styles. When you need a break, find a bench to sit and people-watch, following the example of Forrest Gump in the movie-of-the-same-name that was partially filmed here (his bench is on display at the Savannah History Museum). End your stroll at Forsyth Park, a 30-acre oasis with a picturesque fountain, towering live oaks and a fragrance garden filled with aromatic plants and flowers.

The Savannah College of Art and Design, one of the country’s top art schools, gets partial credit for Savannah’s beauty. Founded in 1978, it has helped preserve the city’s architectural heritage by restoring more than 60 buildings that now house its operations. You also can see the creativity of the school’s faculty, students and alumni in the Savannah College of Art and Design Museum of Art and in galleries around the city.

Some of the city’s most beautiful art can be enjoyed in Bonaventure Cemetery, which gained international fame for its role in the book and film “Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil.” Lined with live oaks draped with Spanish moss and filled with Victorian statuary and monuments, the graveyard — one of the loveliest in the world — is a top Savannah tourist attraction.

While you can walk through Bonaventure on your own, a guided tour provides a fascinating window into local history and culture. Located three miles from downtown Savannah on the Wilmington River, the property was originally part of a plantation founded in 1762. Among the famous Savannah natives buried here are Grammy Award-winning musician Johnny Mercer, poet Conrad Aiken, and Little Gracie, a girl who died of pneumonia at the age of 6 in 1889. Little Gracie’s monument, a poignant likeness of the girl in marble, has touched the hearts of visitors for more than a century.

“You can’t say you’ve seen Savannah without visiting Bonaventure Cemetery,” said Dawn Martin, a guide with Bonaventure Cemetery Tours. “In addition to beautiful markers, it’s filled with stories of the people who’ve shaped the city.”

You can learn more about Savannah’s unique character at several downtown museums, including the Savannah History Museum, which is located in a former railroad station, and the Massie Heritage Center, which focuses on the city’s educational history and architecture. The Mercer Williams House is a must-do for anyone fascinated by “Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil,” a book based on a murder that occurred there in 1981. The Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, part of which is housed in an 1819 Regency-style mansion, is the oldest public art museum in the South.

For shopping and restaurants, head to River Street, a historic area with cobblestone streets that overlooks the Savannah River. A few blocks away is City Market, a bustling arts and entertainment district. Don’t miss the life-size statue of Johnny Mercer, who strikes a jaunty pose amid the strolling pedestrians.

One of the best ways to experience the city is on a food tour with Savannah Taste Experience. Its First Squares tour includes stops for alligator sliders at B&D Burgers, British-style sausage rolls at Little Crown by Pie Society, and honey-flavored treats at the Savannah Bee Co.

“Savannah’s food scene has classic Southern dishes like grits and sweet potatoes interpreted in innovative ways,” said Deshawn Mason, a guide with the Savannah Taste Experience. “And because we’re a coastal city, we have access to the freshest and best seafood.”

Top restaurants in Savannah include The Grey, a hipster eatery housed in a former Greyhound Bus terminal the Olde Pink House, which is known for its classic Southern dishes and Husk, which serves seasonal, locally sourced dishes. For breakfast, try Back in the Day Bakery or Clary’s Cafe. And in the City Market, the Georgia Tasting Room offers samples of locally produced wines, spirits and craft beers.

Finally, end your time in Savannah with a ghost tour. The city is said to be one of the most haunted in America, and local companies offer a variety of ways to sample its supernatural side, from twilight walks to ghost tours conducted by hearse.

“Given our long and colorful history, it’s not surprising we have so many ghost stories in Savannah,” said Lady Ravenwood, a tour guide with 6th Sense World. “It’s such a wonderful city that people want to stick around even after they’re dead.”

Savannah’s Beach: Tybee Island

After touring Savannah, take a scenic, 20-minute drive to Tybee Island, a resort community with rolling surf and a laid-back vibe. In addition to hanging out on its 3-mile beach, recreation options include kayaking in salt marsh estuaries, dolphin cruises, ecology tours and deep-sea fishing.


Kyk die video: Andrew Jackson - Good Evil u0026 The Presidency - PBS Documentary (November 2021).