Hadrianus


Hadrianus - Geskiedenis

Hadrianus (76-138 nC) het tussen die jare 117 en sy dood 21 jaar later as Romeinse keiser geheers. Hy word beskou as een van die sogenaamde Five Good Emperors, en sy bewind is gekenmerk deur interne stabiliteit en militêre sukses. Nietemin het hy 'n paar van sy voorganger Trajan se verre verowerings laat vaar om die Romeinse mag oor die res van die Ryk te konsolideer. Hadrianus verbind hom sterk met sy weermag en gaan so ver as om maaltye saam met sy troepe deur te bring.

Vroeë lewe

Die geboorteplek van Hadrianus is nie seker nie; sommige bronne gee sy tuisdorp as Rome, terwyl ander, insluitend sy persoonlike geskiedenis, suggereer dat hy in Italica gebore is, 'n stad naby die stad wat nou bekend staan ​​as Sevilla, Spanje. Hoe dit ook al sy, sy familie was deel van die Romeinse establishment. Sy vader was 'n prominente senator, Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer. Sommige owerhede meen dat sy latere amptelike biografie doelbewus geskryf is om dit te laat lyk asof hy 'n boorling van Rome was, met sy geboortedatum as 24 Januarie 76 n.C.

Hadrian se naam kom van die stad Hadria, nou bekend as Atri, 'n voor-Romeinse Italiaanse nedersetting. Sy ma was van Gades (nou Cadiz) en was die dogter van 'n ander prominente senatoriale gesin. Toe Hadrian tien was, het albei sy ouers gesterf, en hy is toe in die afdeling Trajanus aangestel. Die opvoeding van die jong seun het die gewone pad vir jong edeles gevolg, en hy was veral geïnteresseerd in die Griekse letterkunde. Hy was op 14 -jarige ouderdom deur Trajanus teruggeroep na Rome, en het Italica nooit weer besoek nie.

Toegang tot militêre diens

Die eerste weermagrol wat Hadrianus aangeneem het, was in die Tweede Legioen, die Adiutrix, waarvoor hy as tribune gedien het. 'N Paar jaar later is hy verplaas na die Eerste Legioen, bekend as Minervia, in Duitsland. In 98 sterf die keiser Nerva, en Hadrian gaan persoonlik om die nuus vir Trajanus te vertel. Alhoewel hy later 'n kort tydjie in Griekeland deurgebring het as verkiesing tot burger van Athene, was sy loopbaan op hierdie tydstip meestal rondom Bo -Pannonia. Hier was hy die erfenis van 'n ander legioen, die vyfde Masedonika, waarna hy as die goewerneur van die provinsie gedien het.

Terwyl hy in die vyfde legioen dien, veg Hadrianus in 'n reeks oorloë teen die Daciërs. Daar word gesê, alhoewel daar min bewyse is, dat hy beloon is deur Trajanus, wat nou keiser was vir sy militêre vaardigheid. Hadrian se volgende rol was as een van die erfenisse van Trajanus tydens 'n ekspedisie -reis na Parthia, hoewel sy tyd sonder noemenswaardige prestasie was. Nietemin is hy spoedig aangestel as goewerneur van Sirië toe die posbekleër verdere probleme met die Daciërs aangespreek het. Dit was Hadrian se eerste solo -opdrag.

Teen hierdie tyd was Trajan dodelik siek en het probeer om huis toe te gaan na Rome, wat Hadrianus in beheer van die Romeinse agterhoede in Sirië gelaat het. Die keiser was besig om dood te gaan voordat hy sy reis kon voltooi, en daarom het hy Hadrianus as sy erfgenaam aangeneem. Toe hy terug was in Rome, verseker Hadrian doeltreffend lojaliteit van sy legioene en ontslaan diegene wat moontlike moeilikheidsmakers was. Ondanks 'n mate van kontroversie oor of sy aannemingsdokumente behoorlik geskryf is, is dit onderteken deur Trajan se vrou, Plotina, en die Senaat onderskryf Hadrianus as die nuwe keiser.

Hadrianus as Romeinse keiser

Ten spyte van sy bevestiging as die opperheerser van die Ryk, het Hadrianus vertraag voordat hy na Rome teruggekeer het, aangesien die Joodse opstand verwoes moes word en die grens langs die Donau veilig kon word. Hadrianus het beveel dat sy voormalige voog, Attianus, die daaglikse pligte in Rome moet verrig, en laasgenoemde het seker gemaak van die nuwe magsbasis van die keiser deur 'n sameswering tussen verskeie vyandige senatore op te stel. Hierdie mans is sonder verhoor doodgemaak, en Hadrianus kon beweer dat, aangesien hy destyds nie in die stad was nie, die idee eerder Attianus was as sy eie.

Hadrianus het 'n reputasie vir uitnemendheid in sy militêre administrasie ontwikkel, maar 'n deel van die rede hiervoor was dat sy bewind relatief vreedsaam was, met die Tweede Romeins-Joodse Oorlog die enigste werklik groot konflik van sy jare aan bewind. Hy het homself as 'n pragmatiese keiser bewys, en verkies om in 121 vrede te maak met die Partiërs eerder as om oorlog toe te gaan. Hadrianus het ook besef dat die Mesopotamiese lande wat deur sy voorganger, Trajan, verower is, op die lang termyn byna onmoontlik was om te verdedig en het daarom besluit om dit te laat vaar.

Hadrianus het eerder geglo dat die Ryk soos dit moet versterk word, eerder as om verdere uitbreidings te probeer doen, maar dat sy bewind die einde van 'n beduidende Romeinse uitbreiding was. Vir hierdie doel het hy besluit om versterkte verdediging op die grense van die Ryk te bou. Die bekendste hiervan was in Brittanje, waar Hadrian's Wall, wat die noordelike grens van Romeinse beheer gemerk het, byna drie eeue lank van groot belang sou bly. Daar was egter ook aansienlike versterkings langs die Ryn en die Donau.

Later jare en dood

Die ernstigste militêre uitdaging vir Rome gedurende die tyd van Hadrianus was die Joodse opstand wat gedurende die 130's gewoed het. Aanvanklik het Hadrian 'n mate van medelye betoon, sodat Jerusalem wat sedert die Eerste Romeins-Joodse Oorlog sestig jaar tevore in puin gelê het, herbou kon word, maar later het hy strenger maatreëls getref en 'n tempel vir Jupiter bo gebou van die tempel. Dit het 'n grootskaalse opstand tot gevolg gehad, wat moontlik die vernietiging van 'n hele Romeinse legioen tot gevolg gehad het. Die opstand is uiteindelik na amper vier jaar verpletter, teen die tyd dat meer as 'n halfmiljoen Jode dood is. Hadrianus het die Jode vervolg vir die res van sy bewind.

'N Bietjie ná sy laaste oorwinning oor die Joodse rebellie, begin die gesondheid van Hadrianus verswak. Op 10 Julie 138 sterf hy op 62 -jarige ouderdom in sy plattelandse villa in Baiae. Uit die beskrywings van hedendaagse bronne word algemeen gedink dat hy aan hartversaking gesterf het. Hadrianus is naby sy villa begrawe, maar 'n rukkie later is sy oorskot na Rome geneem om in die Domitian -tuine begrawe te word. 'N Jaar na sy dood het sy opvolger as keiser, Antoninus Pius, Hadrianus tot 'n god verklaar en 'n tempel ingewy ter ere van hom.


Wat is die muur van Hadrianus?

Gebou op bevel van die Romeinse keiser Hadrianus en geleë in Groot -Brittanje, was Hadrian's Wall 'n defensiewe versterking wat die noordwestelike grens van die Romeinse Ryk drie eeue lank gemerk het. Die muur was 73 myl lank en het van kus tot kus gestrek oor die huidige Noord-Engeland, tussen Wallsend in die ooste tot Bowness-on-Solway in die weste. Die bouwerk het waarskynlik omstreeks 122 nC begin, nadat Hadrianus die Romeinse provinsie, wat destyds bekend was as Britannia, besoek het en dit vermoed het dat dit minstens ses jaar 'n leër van 15 000 man geneem het. Die meerderheid van die muur is van klip gemaak, hoewel sommige gedeeltes van gras gemaak is.

By elke Romeinse myl (die ekwivalent van 0,91 moderne myl) langs die muur is klein forte, wat mylpale genoem word, gevestig en twee waarnemings torings is tussen elke mylpaal geplaas. Boonop was daar meer as 'n dosyn groter forte langs die muur, waar soldate gestasioneer was. 'N Enorme grondwerk wat bestaan ​​uit 'n sloot omring deur parallelle heuwels, en nou na verwys as die Vallum, is net suid van die muur geskep. Hadrianus het as keiser gedien vanaf 117 tot met sy dood in 138. Daarna het die nuwe keiser, Antoninus Pius, 'n turfmuur noord van Hadrianus se muur in die huidige Skotland opgerig. Die sogenaamde Antonine-muur, wat ook 'n aantal forte langs sy lengte gehad het, was egter verlate in die 160's en die Romeine het die muur van Hadrianus herbeset. Die forte langs die muur was waarskynlik beset tot aan die einde van die Romeinse bewind in die vroeë 5de eeu in Brittanje.


Hadrianus

Hadrianus (ongeveer 78-138 nC) was keiser van Rome (r. 117-138 CE) en word erken as die derde van die vyf goeie keisers (Nerva, Trajanus, Hadrianus, Antoninus Pius en Marcus Aurelius) wat regverdig regeer het. Sy regering was die hoogtepunt van die Romeinse Ryk, gewoonlik as c. 117 nC, en het 'n stewige grondslag vir sy opvolger gelewer.

Gebore as Publius Aelius Hadrianus, in Italica (moderne Spanje), is Hadrian veral bekend vir sy literêre aktiwiteite, sy aansienlike bouprojekte in die hele Romeinse Ryk, en veral Hadrian's Wall in Noord -Brittanje. Hy word ook onthou vir sy liefdesverhouding met die Bithyniese jeug Antinous (omstreeks 110-130 nC) wat hy na die dood van die jong man vergoddelik het, wat gelei het tot die gewilde kultus van Antinous wat vroeg reeds teen die Christendom was.

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Hadrianus was baie geïnteresseerd in letterkunde - veral Griekse letterkunde - en Egiptiese mistiek en magie. Hy was een van die hoogst gekultiveerde van die Romeinse keisers - selfs onder die beroemdste vyf - het sy eie poësie en ander werke geskryf en dring daarop aan om persoonlik toesig te hou oor soveel van die bouprojekte wat hy moontlik gemaak het. Onder sy bewind het die Bar Kokhba-opstand (132-136 G.J.) in Judaea uitgebreek, wat Hadrianus persoonlik neergelê het en daarna die naam van die streek uitgewis het, sy naam hernoem tot Sirië Palaestina en die Joodse bevolking uit die gebied verban het.

Die opstand het 'n enorme tol geëis op die keiser, wat sedert 127 nC gesondheidsprobleme gehad het, en sy gesondheid het geleidelik agteruitgegaan nadat c. 136 nC. Sy vrou, Vibia Sabina (l. 83 - ongeveer 137 nC), is in c. 136/137 nC, en hy het haar laat vergoddelik, maar hulle s'n was 'n ongelukkige huwelik aangesien Hadrian homoseksueel was en gereeld dallances met jonger mans gehad het. Hy het Antoninus Pius (r. 138-161 CE) as sy opvolger aangeneem en sterf, waarskynlik aan 'n hartaanval, in 138 CE.

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Vroeë lewe

Hadrianus was goed opgevoed in sy geboortestad Italica Hispania (hedendaagse Sevilla, Spanje), óf deur 'n privaat tutor óf 'n skool vir die seuns van die hoër klas Romeine, soos sy ouers was. Sy pa was 'n senator wat gesterf het toe Hadrian 10 was, en op hierdie tydstip is hy in Rome na die skool gestuur en onder sorg geneem deur Trajan c. 86 CE, voor laasgenoemde se opkoms. Trajan se vrou, Plotina, was dol oor die jong Hadrianus en moedig sy literêre aktiwiteite aan, veral sy belangstelling in Griekse poësie en kultuur. Geleerde Anthony Everitt sê:

Skielik raak hy verlief op alles Grieks. Kort na die dood van sy vader verdiep hy hom in die Griekse studies so entoesiasties dat hy die bynaam gekry het Graeculus, "Klein Griekse seuntjie". (15)

Hadrian se lewenslange bewondering vir Griekeland het in hierdie tyd begin en sou hom gedurende sy bewindstyd met die land en kultuur assosieer. Selfs in die huidige tyd word Hadrianus verkeerdelik as 'n Griekse of Griekse geslag geïdentifiseer.

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Sy eerste militêre diens was as tribune onder keiser Nerva (r. 96-98 nC), en hy is gekies om Trajan die nuus te bring dat hy die opvolger van Nerva is. Toe Nerva sterf, het Trajanus na die troon opgevaar. Keiser Trajanus (r. 98-117 nC) was die eerste Romeinse heerser van provinsiale oorsprong. Later sou biograwe probeer om die geboorte van Trajanus en Hadrianus in die stad Rome te plaas, maar albei was van Spaanse etnisiteit, en sommige het hierdie gemeenskaplikheid as die rede vir Trajanus se aanneming van Hadrian as sy opvolger aangeneem. Die meeste geleerdes betwis dit egter, aangesien dit moontlik is dat Trajanus glad nie Hadrianus genoem het nie.

Trajanus is in 117 CE dood tydens 'n veldtog in Cilicië, met Hadrianus in bevel van sy agterhoede, en word nie aangeneem as 'n opvolger nie. Trajanus se vrou, Plotina, het die erfstukke onderteken en beweer dat Trajanus Hadrianus gekies het, en daar word vermoed dat sy, nie die keiser nie, verantwoordelik was vir die aanneming van Hadrianus as erfgenaam. Hoe dit ook al sy, dit is bekend dat Trajan Hadrian respekteer en hom as sy opvolger beskou het, selfs al het hy hom nie amptelik so genoem nie. Hadrianus se diens aan Trajanus is goed gedokumenteer deur die verskillende belangrike posisies wat hy beklee het voordat hy Romeinse keiser geword het.

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Terselfdertyd lyk dit egter asof die een of ander geskil tussen die twee mans hulle in 100 nC in stryd gehad het. Daar is geen dokumentasie hieroor nie, maar Trajan het daarna geweier om Hadrian in rang te verhoog, en die posisies wat Hadrian gegee het, het hom eintlik uit die onmiddellike kring van Trajan verwyder. Aangesien albei mans homoseksueel was en Trajanus hom omring het met 'n aantal gunsteling jong mans, is daar gesuggereer dat Hadrianus een hiervan in die tyd van sy huwelik met Sabina kon verlei of probeer verlei, wat 'n skeuring tussen hom veroorsaak het en Trajanus, maar dit is bespiegeling.

Plotina, nie Trajanus nie, was duidelik die belangrikste krag agter Hadrian se vooruitgang sedert hy haar invloedsfeer betree het. Plotina en Salonia Matidia (die susterskind van Trajanus, wat ook van Hadrianus gehou het) het sy huwelik met Matidia se dogter, Vibia Sabina, aangepor, en Matidia het moontlik ook 'n hand gehad om hom keiser te maak. Hy sou 'n baie beter heerser wees as haar man. Dit lyk asof Sabina nooit van die begin af die huwelik aangeneem het nie, en Hadrian verkies die geselskap van mans. Alhoewel sy huwelik op geen enkele manier as 'n sukses beskou kon word nie, was sy bewind skouspelagtig.

Hadrianus as keiser

Hadrian se noue verhouding met die troepe het beteken dat hy onmiddellik die weermag se steun gehad het, en selfs as die Romeinse senaat sy opvolging wou bevraagteken, kon hulle niks doen nie. Hadrianus is omhels deur die meerderheid van die mense van Rome en was baie bewonder gedurende die tyd wat hy sy amp beklee het. Sy gewildheid as keiser word bewys deur die feit dat, hoewel hy vir die grootste deel van sy bewind afwesig was, geen teken van teregwysing of kritiek hieroor in sy vroeë biografieë verskyn nie. Vroeër Romeinse heersers, soos Nero (r. 54-68 nC), is hewig gekritiseer omdat hulle baie minder tyd weg van die stad deurgebring het. Professor D. Brendan Nagle skryf:

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[Hadrianus] het die grootste deel van sy bewind (twaalf uit een-en-twintig jaar) deur die hele Ryk gereis, die provinsies besoek, toesig gehou oor die administrasie en die dissipline van die leër nagegaan. Hy was 'n briljante administrateur wat hom met alle aspekte van die regering en die regspleging besig gehou het. (278)

Sy toewyding aan die Romeinse leër was so dat hy onder die gewone soldate sou slaap en eet, en hy word gereeld in militêre klere uitgebeeld, alhoewel sy heerskappy gekenmerk is deur relatiewe vrede. Die stabiliteit van die ryk en toenemende welvaart het Hadrianus die luukse gegee om na die provinsies te reis, waar hy die projekte wat hy uit Rome opdrag gegee het, eerstehands ondersoek het.

Die bouprojekte van Hadrianus is miskien sy blywende erfenis. Hy besoek Britannia in 122 CE kort nadat 'n opstand neergelê is en beveel 'n lang, verdedigingsmuur wat gebou word om die binnedring van die noordelike Pikte te voorkom. Hierdie struktuur is die beroemde Hadrianusmuur in die hedendaagse Engeland. Hy het stede gevestig, monumente opgerig, paaie verbeter en die infrastruktuur van provinsies regoor die Balkan -skiereiland, Egipte, Klein -Asië, Noord -Afrika en Griekeland versterk. Hy het Griekeland minstens twee keer besoek en 'n ingewyde in die Eleusiniese raaisels geword. Die boog van Hadrianus, gebou deur die burgers van Athene in 131/132 nC, eer Hadrianus as die stigter van die stad. Inskripsies op die aartsnaam Theseus (die tradisionele stigter), maar voeg Hadrianus toe vanweë laasgenoemde se groot bydraes tot Athene, soos die groot tempel van Zeus.

In Rome herbou hy die Pantheon (wat deur 'n brand verwoes is) en Trajan's Forum, asook die bou van ander geboue, Romeinse baddens en villa's. Baie van hierdie strukture het eeue lank ongeskonde oorleef, sommige tot in die 19de eeu nC, en die Pantheon, wat nog steeds perfek bewaar is, kan in die huidige tyd besoek word. Hadrianus het 'n groot belangstelling in argitektuur gehad en het blykbaar idees of selfs planne bygedra tot die argitekte, alhoewel geleerdes nie meer glo dat hy die hoofargitek van 'n enkele projek was nie.

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Hadrianus se muur

Van al sy belangrike monumente en geboue is Hadrian's Wall in Noord -Brittanje die bekendste. Die bou van die muur, wat in die ou tyd bekend was as Vallum Hadriani, is omstreeks 122 nC begin en stem ooreen met die besoek van Hadrian aan die provinsie. Dit was die noordelike grens van die Romeinse Ryk in Brittanje, maar die lengte en breedte van die projek (wat van kus tot kus strek) dui daarop dat die belangrikste doel van die muur 'n bewys van Rome se mag was. Die muur was oorspronklik 3 m breed en 16-20 voet hoog oos van die rivier Irthing, almal van klip gebou en 6 m breed en 3,5 m hoog wes van die rivier, bestaan ​​uit klip en gras, wat 120 myl oor ongelyke terrein strek.

Dit is in ses jaar gebou deur die legioene wat in Romeinse Brittanje gestasioneer was. Daar was tussen 14-17 versterkings langs die muur en 'n vallei ('n sloot wat doelbewus uit grondwerke gebou is) wat parallel met die muur geloop het. Die vallum was 6 meter breed en 3 meter diep, geflankeer deur groot hope dig gepakte aarde. Aangesien Hadrianus se buitelandse beleid 'vrede deur krag' was, word gedink dat die muur, wat oorspronklik gepleister en witgekalk was, die krag van die Romeinse Ryk duidelik sou verteenwoordig het.

Antinous

Na sy besoek aan Britannia, het Hadrian na Klein -Asië gegaan en na die gebied van Bithynia gereis om die herstel van Nicomedia wat hy befonds het, te ondersoek nadat die stad deur 'n aardbewing beskadig is. Dit was in Nicomedia of in die nabygeleë Claudiopolis dat hy die jong Antinous in 123 nC ontmoet het wat sy byna konstante metgesel vir die volgende sewe jaar geword het. Antinous was in hierdie tyd moontlik 13-15 jaar oud, maar skakels tussen dieselfde geslag tussen ouer mans en jong seuns was aanvaarbaar in die Romeinse kultuur, solank albei partye ingestem het. Sommige van hierdie liefdesaangeleenthede was 'n kort tydjie, maar ander, soos die van Hadrianus en Antinous, was ernstige, toegewyde verhoudings.

Hadrianus het gereël dat Antinous na 'n gesogte kosskool in Rome gestuur word wat jong mans lewenslank by die hof opgelei het, en dan, van 125 tot 130 nC, was die jong man die geliefde van Hadrian, wat saam met hom in sy villa buite Rome gewoon het en saam met hom gereis het na die provinsies. Hulle verhouding was gebaseer op die van die Grieke waarin 'n ouer man 'n jonger sou help met morele en intellektuele ontwikkeling en sosiale vooruitgang. Everitt sê:

[Hadrianus] kon sy Bithyniese seuntjie baie goed as 'n speelbal beskou het - Met die reputasie van Hadrianus as 'n aankoper van alle luuksheid en losbandigheid, was Antinous eenvoudig 'n ander in 'n lang reeks verowerings ... [Maar] hierdie meeste Helleense keisers het homself as 'n vee uit (minnaar) met Antinous as syne eromenos (geliefde). As hy die reëls nakom, sou hy die seun met respek behandel het, hom verwoes en die keuse gegee het om sy voorskotte te aanvaar of nie. Enige 'gunste' wat Hadrianus toegestaan ​​het, sou gekombineer word met 'n ernstige verbintenis tot Antinous se morele ontwikkeling toe hy 'n volwassene geword het. (243)

Dit blyk presies die koers te wees wat Hadrianus gevolg het. Die egpaar reis saam van 127 tot 130 nC en arriveer betyds in Egipte om die Osirisfees in Oktober 130 te vier. Teen die einde van die maand, net voor die fees, verdrink Antinous in die Nylrivier. Hadrianus het dit as 'n ongeluk gerapporteer, maar historici soos Cassius Dio (lc 155 - c. 235 CE) en Aurelius Victor (lc 320 - c. 390 CE) beweer dat Antinous homself opgeoffer het in 'n ritueel om Hadrianus van 'n siekte te genees (presies wat onbekend is) het hy die afgelope paar jaar gely. Hierdie aanspraak word versterk deur die opmerking dat Antinous, as Hadrian se geliefde gunsteling, ongetwyfeld bygewoon sou gewees het deur bediendes wat hom uit die rivier sou gered het en verder deur 'n reis wat die egpaar onderneem het, net voor Antinous se dood, waar hulle met mistieke rites met 'n priester beraadslaag. Dit lyk asof Hadrian se gesondheid daarna verbeter het, maar sy hartseer oor die verlies van sy geliefde en beste vriend was oorweldigend.

Hadrianus het Antinous dadelik laat vergoddelik. Dit was ongekend, aangesien 'n keiser die voorstel gewoonlik aan die senaat voorlê wat dit sou goedkeur. Hy het beveel dat die stad Antinopolis ter ere van Antinous gebou is op die oewer van die Nyl, waar hy verdrink het, en 'n kultus het grootgeword rondom die jeug wat vinnig deur die provinsies versprei het. Antinous het 'n sterwende en herlewende godsfiguur geword, wat gedink het dat hy, omdat hy eens 'n mens was, vinniger sou reageer op smekinge as ander gode. Hy word beskou as 'n god van genesing en deernis, en sy aanhangers het standbeelde van hom in tempels en heiligdomme in die hele ryk opgehef. Na raming was daar eens meer as 2 000 standbeelde van Antinous waarvan 115 teruggevind is. Die kultus van Antinous het so gewild geword dat dit meer as 200 jaar later teen die nuwe godsdiens van die Christendom en die gevestigde kultus van Isis was.

Jerusalem en opstand

Hadrianus het sy verdriet so goed as moontlik hanteer en sy reis deur die provinsies aangegaan. Alhoewel hy 'n geleerde en gekweekte man was, is sy beleid van vreedsame verhoudings met ander, hetsy persoonlik of professioneel, nie altyd nagekom nie. Dit was bekend dat hy gereeld sy humeur verloor het by geleerdes in die hof waarmee hy nie saamgestem het nie en eenkeer per ongeluk 'n bediende in sy een oog verblind toe hy 'n stylpyl na hom gooi. In Jerusalem sou Hadrianus sy humeur op massiewe en tragiese skaal ten volle teuel gee toe die Jode in opstand gekom het teen sy bou van 'n tempel.

In 132 nC besoek Hadrianus Jerusalem, wat nog in puin was van die Eerste Romeins-Joodse Oorlog van 66-73 HJ. Hy herbou die stad volgens sy eie ontwerpe en herdoop dit na Aelia Capitolina Jupiter Capitolinus na homself en die koning van die Romeinse gode. Toe hy 'n tempel vir Jupiter bou op die ruïnes van die Tempel van Salomo (die Tweede Tempel, wat deur die Jode as heilig beskou word), het die bevolking opgestaan ​​onder leiding van Simon bar Kochba (ook gegee as Shimon Bar-Cochba, Bar Kokhbah, Ben-Cozba, Cosiba of Coziba) in wat bekend gestaan ​​het as die Bar-Kochba-opstand.

Romeinse verliese in hierdie veldtog was enorm, maar Joodse verliese was nie minder beduidend nie. Teen die tyd dat die rebellie neergelê is, is 580 000 Jode dood en meer as 1000 dorpe en dorpe vernietig. Hadrianus het die oorblywende Jode uit die streek verban en dit hernoem tot Sirië Palaestina na die tradisionele vyande van die Joodse volk, die Filistyne. Hy het beveel dat die Torah in die openbaar verbrand word, die Joodse geleerdes tereggestel en die praktyk en onderhouding van Judaïsme verbied.

Dood en opvolger

Hadrian se hantering van die Bar-Kochba-opstand is die enigste donker vlek op sy andersins bewonderenswaardige bewind, maar hy het sy keuses gemaak op grond van die tradisionele Romeinse beleid in die hantering van opstande: 'n harde reaksie gevolg deur herstel. Hy het moontlik sy reaksie so ver geneem as uit persoonlike verontwaardiging dat iemand 'n probleem met sy tempel of enige van sy ander besluite sou gehad het.

Toe sy gesondheid nou verswak het, keer Hadrian terug na Rome en bestee hom aan poësie en administratiewe aangeleenthede. Hy noem Antoninus Pius sy opvolger met die voorwaarde dat Antoninus die jong Marcus Aurelius (r. 161-180 CE) as sy eie sou aanneem. Aurelius sou saam heers met Lucius Verus (r. 161-169 CE) wie se pa Hadrianus se aangenome seun was. Hadrian sterf in 138 CE, vermoedelik aan 'n hartaanval, op 62 -jarige ouderdom.

Hy is eers begrawe in Puteoli, op die terrein van die voormalige boedel van die retorikus Cicero (as huldeblyk aan Hadrianus se liefde vir leer), maar toe Antoninus Pius die volgende jaar die groot graf van Hadrianus in Rome voltooi het, is sy lyk veras en die as het daar begrawe by die van sy vrou en sy aangenome seun Lucius Aelius Caesar, vader van Lucius Verus. Antoninus Pius het Hadrianus laat vergoddelik en tempels ter ere van hom laat bou. Oor die nalatenskap van sy bewind, sê historikus Edward Gibbon:

[Hadrianus se heerskappy was] die tydperk in die wêreldgeskiedenis waartydens die toestand van die mensdom die gelukkigste en voorspoedigste was ... toe die groot omvang van die Romeinse Ryk deur absolute mag beheer is onder leiding van deugd en wysheid. (61)

Die bewind van Hadrianus word oor die algemeen in ooreenstemming met Gibbon se skatting beskou. Selfs onder die vyf goeie keisers van antieke Rome, staan ​​hy op as 'n uitsonderlike staatsman. Aurelius, die laaste van die vyf goeie keisers, sou heers in baie moeiliker tye as wat Hadrianus geweet het, en sy seun, Commodus (r. 176-192 nC), word 'n nie-amptelike diktator wie se ongelyke heerskappy en moord tot politieke en sosiale steurnisse gelei het wat nooit eens onder Hadrianus sou kon voorgestel word nie.


Interessante feite oor Hadrianus

► Hadrianus is op 24 Januarie 76 nC gebore, waarskynlik in Italica of Rome. Hy was afkomstig van 'n gevestigde familie van Italiaanse afkoms, maar het in Spanje gewoon. Die biografie Augustan History noem dat hy in Rome gebore is, maar kenners meen dat dit 'n komplot kan wees om hom 'n boorling van Rome te laat lyk. Hy was Romeinse keiser van 117 CE tot 138 CE.

► Sy ma Domitia Paulina was van Cadiz, wat destyds een van die rykste stede was. Sy vader Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer was 'n senator van praetoriaanse rang. Sy enigste broer, suster, Aelia Domitia Paulina, was getroud met die drievoudige konsul Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus.

► Toe sy vader in 86 nC oorlede is, is hy onder die voogdyskap geplaas van keiser Trajanus, wat die vader van Hadrianus was en Caelius Attianus, wat later 'n praetoriaanse prefek geword het. Trajanus en sy vrou Pompeia Plotina het geen kinders gebaar nie, daarom was sy baie na aan Hadrianus. Daar word geglo dat Plotina Adrianus raad gegee het toe hy die keiser geword het.

► Hy het in verskillende skole gestudeer en was baie lief vir die Griekse letterkunde, soveel dat hy 'n bynaam Graeculus gekry het, wat beteken#Griekling ’. Op die ouderdom van 14 keer hy terug na Italica, of sommige beweer dat hy in Italica was totdat hy 14 was. Nadat hy Italica verlaat het, het hy nooit teruggegaan nie, maar die plek is later ter ere van hom die Colonia -titel toegeken.

► Trajanus het probeer om Hadrian in die weermag op te stel, maar Hadrian het die militêre loopbaan sterk getugtig, omdat hy 'n maklike lewe verkies en graag jag. Aanvanklik dien hy as 'n Tribune in Legio II Adiutrix, later in Duitsland. In 98 nC, toe Nerva oorlede is, het Hadrian teruggegaan om Trajanus oor sy dood in te lig. Hy is later aangekondig as nalatenskap van 'n legioen in Upper Pannonia, en later as goewerneur van dieselfde provinsie.

► In 100 nC, in die geval van Polina, trou Hadrian met Trajanus se grootmoeder Vibia Sabina, wat tien jaar jonger was. Die vakbond was nie gelukkig nie, hoewel dit tot haar dood geduur het.

► Vanweë sy huwelik en Plotina se leiding, ook sy eie vermoëns, is hy aangestel in verskillende poste, soos quaestor in 101 CE, Tribune of the people in 105 CE, en praetor in 106 CE. Hy het aan die oorlog teen Dacians deelgeneem en is later aangestel as Legatus in die Parthian-veldtog van 113-17 CE. Hadrian beklee selfs die pos as goewerneur van Sirië.

Villa Adriana

► In 117 nC, toe Trajanus terugkeer van die Parthian -veldtog, het hy ernstig siek geword. By Selinus, terwyl hy op 8 Augustus sy laaste asem haal, aanvaar hy Hadrianus as sy opvolger. Maar bronne sê dat teen die tyd dat dokumente onderteken is, Trajan reeds dood was, en Plotina die dokumente onderteken het om die aanneming te bevestig.

► Op 11 Augustus 117 nC bestyg hy die troon as Hadrianus Augustus, word hy die 14de keiser van Rome. 118-121 CE was die konstruksietydperk van sy villa in Tivoli. Hy het nie geglo in die uitbreiding van sy koninkryk nie, eerder om na die reeds groot land te sorg. Hy het Trajan se plan omgekeer en teruggetrek uit Armenië, Mesopotamië en Assirië. Hy het herstel met Parthia en die onderste Donau. In 118 nC is hy terug na Rome om die situasie te hanteer wat ontstaan ​​het as gevolg van die teregstelling van vier konsuls.

► Hy het sy sukses hoofsaaklik aan Polita en ander mense besit. As gevolg van Polita se leiding, kan hy mense se hart wen en kan hy die weermag behoorlik oplei. Dit was eintlik bekend dat hy gewone klere soos sy leër gedra het, dieselfde kos geëet het, dieselfde goedkoop wyn as hulle gedrink het. Dit het hom nog meer gewild gemaak by die publiek.

► Hadrian het ook nooit erkenning gekry vir sy argitektuur nie, selfs al was dit sy idee, het hy teruggetrek en ander mense toegelaat. Hy was lief daarvoor om gedigte te skryf en te lees. Hy het selfs gehelp om die tempel van Zeus in Athene te voltooi, wat ander heersers vyf eeue geneem het, maar kon dit steeds nie voltooi nie.

► Anders as ander keisers, het Hadrianus deur sy ryk gereis en selfs klein dorpies besoek om veranderinge en ontwikkelinge in die stad te beveel. Hy het onderwerpe soos finansies, administrasie en baie wette verander.

Pantheon, Rome

► Terug in Rome herbou hy die Pantheon wat deur Agrippa gebou is, maar is uitgewis weens 'n brand in 80 nC. Dit staan ​​vandag nog steeds en word beskou as een van die best bewaarde antieke geboue in Rome.

► Die eerste reis van Hadrianus begin op 121 CE en duur tot 125 CE, gedurende hierdie tyd besoek hy verskillende plekke soos: Dacia, Griekeland, Asië, Tarraconis, Cappadocia, Gallatia, Bithynia, Pannonia, Mesia, Gallië, Duitsland, Noricum, Brittanje.

► Die bou van die muur van Hadrianus begin in 122 nC, in die huidige Noord-Engeland. Dit dien as 'n beskermende versperring teen die Barbarians. Dit is ook gedien as 'n territoriale grens. Daar was 23 groot forte wat elke kilometer aflê, die muur was vermoedelik 20 meter hoog en 8 tot 10 voet dik. Dit is ten volle gebou in 128 CE.

► Op sy tweede reis, wat in 128 CE begin het en tot 134 CE duur, besoek hy Egipte, Arabië, Sirië, Griekeland, Anatolië en Judea. Hy is klaar met die bou van die geboue waarmee hy tydens sy eerste besoek begin het.

Boog van Hadrianus

► In 129 en 130 nC het burgers van Jerash (destyds Gerasa genoem) die boog van Hadrianus gebou om hom te vereer tydens sy besoek aan die stad. Toe hy in Griekeland was, ontmoet hy 'n baie aantreklike jeugdige genaamd Antinous en raak baie verlief op hom. Trouens, Hadrianus was so halsoorkop verlief op hom dat hy hom aangeneem het as sy metgesel. Die twee het saam oral gereis, maar die noodlot het ander planne gehad.

► Bronne meld dat hul verhouding meestal seksueel van aard was. In 130 CE, op hul reis na Egipte, verdrink Antinous geheimsinnig in die rivier die Nyl. Daar is teorieë oor hierdie insident, sommige historici beweer dat hy homself opgeoffer het vir Hadrianus. Wat ook al die interpretasies, Hadrianus was diep depressief na hierdie ongeluk. Hadrianus het die Egiptiese stad Antinopolis in sy geheue gestig, hy het selfs Antinous laat vergoddelik om as 'n God aanbid te word.

► In 130 HJ het Hadrianus Jerusalem besoek terwyl hy dit in puin sien, besluit hy om die hele stad te herbou en noem dit Aelia Capitolina Jupiter Capitolinus. Hy laat 'n tempel bou om Jupiter te vereer op die ruïnes van die tempel van Salomo (heilig vir Jode). As gevolg van hierdie konstruksie was baie Jode woedend en het hulle in opstand gekom teen Hadrianus, wat bekend staan ​​as Bar Kokhbah's Revolt.

► Hierdie opstand het in 132 nC begin, op pad terug na Europa, en hy is opgeroep om vir die oorlog te sorg. Teen die einde van die oorlog is ongeveer 5,80,000 Jode dood. Woedend oor die oorlog, het Hadrianus die res van die Jode verbied om die stad binne te gaan, en dit hernoem tot Sirië Palestina. Hy het selfs beveel dat die heilige Torah in die openbaar verbrand moet word, en 'n verbod op die beoefening van Judaïsme geplaas.

► Hadrian het in 136 nC na Rome teruggekeer met 'n swak gesondheid, hy het 60 geword. Sy gesondheid was vinnig besig om te verswak en het Lucius Aelius Caesar aangeneem, wat as sy opvolger aangewys is, maar hy is op 1 Januarie 138 CE oorlede.

► Na sy dood het Hadrianus Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus, ook bekend as Antoninus Pius, aangeneem op voorwaarde dat hy wyle Lucius Aelius Caesar ’ se seun Lucius Ceionius Commodus en Marcus Annius Verus (kleinseun van 'n magtige senator) moes aanneem.

Tempel van Hadrianus, Efese Turkye

► Gedurende sy laaste dae het hy hom in poësie en skryfwerk verdiep. Hadrianus was briljant wat literatuur betref. Die 62-jarige Hadrian is op 10 Julie 138 nC oorlede. Geskiedkundiges glo dat hy weens 'n hartaanval gesterf het. 'N Tempel wat aan hom gewy is, is in Efese, die huidige Turkye, gebou.

Castel Sant ’Angelo, Rome, Italië

► Hy is eers begrawe in Puteoli, naby Baiae, later is sy oorskot na Gardens of Domitia oorgeplaas. Toe die graf van Hadrianus (Rome) voltooi is, wat nou bekend staan ​​as Castel Sant ’Angelo, is hy veras en sy as is geïntegreer met sy vrou en aangenome seun.

► Volgens Historia Augusta het Hadrianus kort voor sy dood 'n gedig gekomponeer:

Animula, vagula, blandula
Hospes comesque corporis
Quae nunc abibis in loca
Pallidula, rigida, nudula,
Nec, ut soles, dabis iocos..

Translation:
Roving amiable little soul,
Body’s companion and guest,
Now descending for parts
Colorless, unbending, and bare
Your usual distractions no more shall be there…

Many books have been written about the humanist Roman Emperor Hadrian. Anthony Birley, who wrote Hadrian: The Restless Emperor, and Mary Taliaferro Boatwright who wrote the book Hadrian and the Cities of the Roman Empire give us a detailed account of the emperor’s life. He played a very important role in developing the foreign policies of his reign. He abolished many laws pertaining to debts, and that’s how he won people’s heart in his empire.


Hadrian

Publius Aelius Hadrianus was born on 24 January AD 76, probably at Rome, though his family lived in Italica in Baetica. Having originally come from Picenum in north-eastern when this part of Spain was opened up to Roman settlement, Hadrian’s family had lived in Italica for some three centuries. With Trajan also coming from Italica, and Hadrian’s father, Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, being his cousin, Hadrian’s obscure provincial family now found itself possessing impressive connections.

In AD 86 Hadrian’s father died in AD 86 and he, at the age of 10, became joint ward of Acilius Attianus, a Roman equestrian, and of Trajan. Trajan’s initial attempt to create a military career for the 15 year old Hadrian was frustrated by Hadrian’s liking the easy life. He preferred going hunting and enjoying other civilian luxuries.

And so Hadrian’s service as a military tribune stationed in Upper Germany ended with little distinction as Trajan angrily called him to Rome in order to keep a close eye on him.

Next the so far disappointing young Hadrian was set on a new career path. This time – though still very young – as a judge in an inheritance court in Rome.

And alas he shortly afterwards succeeded as a military officer in the Second Legion ‘Adiutrix’ and then in the Fifth Legion ‘Macedonia’ on the Danube.

In Ad 97 when Trajan, based in Upper Germany was adopted by Nerva, it was Hadrian who was sent form his base to carry the congratulations of his legion to the new imperial heir.

But in AD 98 Hadrian seized the great opportunity of Nerva’s to carry the news to Trajan. Uttely determined to be the first to carry this news to the new emperor he raced to Germany. With others also seeking to be the bearers of the good news to a no doubt grateful emperor it was quite a race, with many an obstacle being purposely placed in Hadrian’s way. But he succeeded, even traveling the last stages of his journey on foot. Trajan’s gratitude was assured and Hadrian indeed became a very close friend of the new emperor.

In AD 100 Hadrian married Vibia Sabina, the daughter of Trajan’s niece Matidia Augusta, after having accompanied the new emperor to Rome.
Soon after followed the first Dacian war, during which time Hadrian served as quaestor and staff officer.

With the second Dacian war following soon after the first, Hadrian was given command of the First Legion ‘Minervia’, and once he returned to Rome he made praetor in AD 106. A year thereafter he was governor of Lower Pannonia and then consul in AD 108.

When Trajan embarked on his Parthian campaign in AD 114, Hadrian once more held a key position, this time as governor of the important military province of Syria.

There is no doubt that Hadrian was of high status during Trajan’s reign, and yet there were no immediate signs that he was intended as the imperial heir.

The details of Hadrian’s succession are indeed mysterious. Trajan might well have decided on his deathbed to make Hadrian his heir.

But the sequence of events does indeed seem suspicious. Trajan died the 8 August AD 117, on the 9th it was announced at Antioch that he had adopted Hadrian. But only by the 11th was it made public that Trajan was dead.

According to the historian Dio Cassius, Hadrian’s accession was solely due to the actions of empress Plotina, kept Trajan’s death a secret for several days. In this time she sent letters to the senate declaring Hadrian’s the new heir. These letter however carried her own signature, not that of emperor Trajan, probably using the excuse that the emperor’s illness made him to feeble to write.

Yet another rumor asserted that someone had been sneaked into Trajan’s chamber by the empress, in order to impersonate his voice. Once Hadrian’s accession was secure, and only then, did empress Plotina announce Trajan’s death.

Hadrian, already in the east as governor of Syria at the time, was present at Trajan’s cremation at Seleucia (the ashes were thereafter shipped back to Rome). Though now he was there as emperor.

Right from the start Hadrian made it clear that he was his own man. One of his very first decisions was the abandonment of the eastern territories which Trajan had just conquered during his last campaign. Had Augustus a century before spelled out that his successors should keep the empire within the natural boundaries of the rivers Rhine, Danube and Euphrates, then Trajan had broken that rule and had crossed the Euphrates.

On Hadrian’s order once pulled back to behind the Euphrates again.
Such withdrawal, the surrender territory for which the Roman army had just paid in blood, will hardly have been popular.

Hadrian did not travel directly back to Rome, but first set out for the Lower Danube to deal with trouble with the Sarmatians at the border. While he was there he also confirmed Trajan’s annexation of Dacia. The memory of Trajan, the Dacian gold mines and the army’s misgivings about withdrawing from conquered lands clearly convinced Hadrian that it might not be wise always to withdraw behind the natural boundaries advised by Augustus.

If Hadrian set out to rule as honorably as his beloved predecessor, then he got off to a bad start. He had not arrived in Rome yet and four respected senators, all ex-consuls, were dead. Men of the highest standing in Roman society, all had been killed for plotting against Hadrian. Many however saw these executions as a way by which Hadrian was removing any possible pretenders to his throne. All four had been friends of Trajan. Lusius Quietus had been a military commander and Gaius Nigrinus had been a very wealthy and influential politician in fact so influential he had been thought a possible successor to Trajan.

But what makes the ‘affair of the four consulars’ especially unsavory is that Hadrian refused to take any responsibility for this matter. Might other emperors have gritted their teeth and announced that a ruler needed to act ruthlessly in order to grant the empire a stable, unshakable government, then Hadrian denied everything.

He even went as far as swearing a public oath that he was not responsible. More so he said that it had been the senate who had ordered the executions (which is technically true), before placing the blame firmly on Attianus, the praetorian prefect (and his former join-guardian with Trajan).
However, if Attianus had done anything wrong in the eyes of Hadrian, it is hard to understand why the emperor would have made him consul thereafter.

Despite such an odious start to his reign, Hadrian quickly proved to be a highly capable ruler. Army discipline was tightened and the border defenses were strengthened. Trajan’s welfare programme for the poor, the alimenta, was further expanded. Most of all though, Hadrian should become known for his efforts to visit the imperial territories personally, where he could inspect provincial government himself.

These far-ranging journeys would begin with a visit to Gaul in AD 121 and would end ten years later on his return to Rome in AD 133-134. No other emperor would ever see this much of his empire. From as far west as Spain to as far east as the province of Pontus in modern day Turkey, from as far north as Britain to as far south as the Sahara desert in Libya, Hadrian saw it all. Though this was not mere sight-seeing.

Far more Hadrian sought to gather first-hand information about the various problem the provinces faced. His secretaries compiled entire books of such information. Perhaps the most famous result of Hadrian’s conclusions when seeing for himself the problems faced by the territories, was his order to construct the great barrier which still today runs across northern England, Hadrian’s Wall, which once shielded the British Roman province from the wild northern barbarians of the isle.

Since a very young age Hadrian had held a fascination for Greek learning and sophistication. So much so, he was dubbed the ‘Greekling’ by his contemporaries. Once he became emperor his tastes for all things Greek should became a trademark of his. He visited Athens, still the great centre of learning, no fewer than three times during his reign. And his grand building programmes did not limit itself to Rome with a few grand buildings in other cities, but also Athens benefited extensively from its great imperial patron.

Yet even this great love of art should become sullied by Hadrian’s darker side. Had he invited Trajan’s architect Apollodorus of Damascus (the designer of Trajan’s Forum) to comment on his own design for a temple, he then turned on him, once the architect showed himself little impressed. Apollodorus was first banished and later executed. Had great emperors shown themselves able to handle criticism and listen to advice, then Hadrian who at times patently was unable, or unwilling, to do so.

Hadrian appears to have been a man of mixed sexual interests. The Historia Augusta criticizes both his liking of good looking young men as well as his adulteries with married women.

If his relations with his wife was anything but close, then the rumour that he tried to poson her might suggest that it was even much worse than that.

When it comes to Hadrian’s apparent homosexuality, then the accounts remain vague and unclear. Most of the attention centres on the young Antinous, whom Hadrian grew very fond of. Statues of Antinous have survived, showing that imperial patronage of this youth extended to having sculptures made of him. In AD 130 Antinous accompanied Hadrian to Egypt. It was on a trip on the Nile when Antinous met with an early and somewhat mysterious death. Officially, he fell from the boat and drowned. But a perisistent rumour spoke of Antinous having been a sacrifice in some bizarre eastern ritual.

The reasons for the young man’s death might not be clear, but was is known is that Hadrian grieved deeply for Antinous. He even founded a city along the banks of the Nile where Antinous had drowned, Antinoopolis. Touching as this might have seemed to some, it was an act deemed unbefitting an emperor and drew much ridicule.

If the founding of Antinoopolis had caused some eyebrows to be raised then Hadrian’s attempts to re-found Jerusalem were little more than disastrous.

Had Jerusalem been destroyed by Titus in AD 71 then it had never been rebuilt since. At least not officially. And so, Hadrian, seeking to make a great historical gesture, sought to build a new city there, to be called Aelia Capitolina. Hadrian planning a grand imperial Roman city, it was to boast a grand temple to Juliter Capitolinus on the temple mount.

The Jews, however, were hardly to stand by and watch in silence while the emperor desecrated their holiest place, the ancient site of the Temple of Solomon. And so, with Simeon Bar-Kochba as its leader, an embittered Jewish revolt arose in AD 132. Only by the end of AD 135 was the situation back under control, with over half a million Jews having lost their lives in the the fighting.

This might have been Hadrian’s only war, and yet it was a war for which only really one man could be blamed – emperor Hadrian. Though it must be added that the troubles surrounding the Jewish insurrection and its brutal crushing were unusual in Hadrian’s reign. His government was, but for this occasion, moderate and careful.

Hadrian showed a great interest in law and appointed a famous African jurist, Lucius Salvius Julianus, to create a definitive revision of the edicts which had been pronounced every year by the Roman praetors for centuries.

This collection of laws was a milestone in Roman law and provided the poor with at least a chance of gaining some limited knowledge of the legal safeguards to which they were entitled.

In AD 136 Hadrian, whose health began to fail, sought an heir before he would die, leaving the empire without a leader. He was 60 years old now. Perhaps he feared that, being without an heir might make him vulnerable to a challenge to the throne as he grew more frail. Or he simply sought to secure a peaceful transition for the empire. Whichever version is true, Hadrian adopted Lucius Ceionius Commodus as his successor.

Once more the more menacing side of Hadrian showed as he order the suicide of those he suspected opposed to Commodus’ accession, most notably the distinguished senator and Hadrian’s brother-in-law Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus.

Though the chosen heir, though only in his thirties, suffered from bad health and so Commodus was already dead by 1 January AD 138.

A month after Commodus’ death, Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius, a highly respected senator, on the condition that the childless Antoninus in turn would adopt Hadrian’s promising young nephew Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus (the son of Commodus) as heirs.

Hadrian’s final days were a grim affair. He became even more ill and spent extended periods in severe distress. As he sought to end his life with either a blade or poison, his servants grew ever more vigilant to keep such items from his grasp. At one point he even convinced a barbarian servant by name of Mastor to kill him. But at the last moment Mastor failed to obey.
Despairing, Hadrian left government in the hands of Antoninus Pius, and retired, dying soon afterwards at the pleasure resort of Baiae on 10 July AD 138.

Had Hadrian been a brilliant administrator and had he provided the empire with a period of stability and relative peace for 20 years, he died a very unpopular man.

He had been a cultured man, devoted to religion, law, the arts – devoted to civilization. And yet, he also bore that dark side in him which could reveal him similar to a Nero or a Domitian at times. And so he was feared. And feared men are hardly ever popular.

His body was buried twice in different places before finally his ashes were laid to rest in the mausoleum he had built for himself at Rome.
It was only with reluctance that the senate accepted Antoninus Pius’ request to deify Hadrian.


Hadrian's Travels

Hadrian arrived in Rome in the summer of AD 118, nearly a year after his actual succession to Trajan. His predecessor's eastern conquests had facilitated a massive Jewish revolt which required an in-kind legionary response. While these revolts were largely quelled while Trajan was still alive, Hadrian was forced to finish the work. As one part of his ultimate resolution of the matter, Hadrian understood the difficulty in controlling the east beyond the Euphrates River and gave up Trajan's recent conquests.

While unpopular, especially to the legions that had brought these territories under Roman control with their blood, the desire to mark natural defensible borders necessitated the policy. In Dacia, however, whether he felt a need to deflect a growing sense of legionary resentment at his eastern withdrawal policy, desired continued economic control of Dacia's important mineral wealth (gold mines) or a combination of both, Hadrian confirmed and upheld Trajan's annexation of the territory.

Hadrian's eventual arrival in Rome was greeted with Senatorial hostility, thanks largely to the executions of four proconsular magistrates. As such, Hadrian focused on measures to increase his popularity with the masses. Numerous honors were voted upon Trajan (though more from the Senate than directly from Hadrian), massive debt was cancelled in an enormously popular public burning of the records, the port at Ostia was expanded to secure additional grain supplies and the alimenta (essentially providing government support to local communities) begun by Nerva and expanded by Trajan was continued. Building and restoration of public works throughout the empire was conducted on an unprecedented scale and Hadrian was an enormous patron of the arts and literature. Perhaps the most important achievement of Hadrian's reign was the reformation of the legal system. Conducted by Salvius Julianus (grandfather to future emperor Didius Julianus), these reforms included regular review of magisterial decrees and edicts ensuring that such measures provided desired and positive effects.

Despite his efforts, some reforms and projects (such as tearing down a theatre built by Trajan on the Campus Martius) were terribly unpopular. His poor relationship and lack of popularity with the senate, coupled with a strong desire to review the Empire's defenses, inspired him to leave the hostile city and explore the provinces first hand. In AD 121, Hadrian left Rome on an extended tour beginning to the north in Gaul. Form there he continued to Germania where the legions were drilled and trained in such a manner as to increase discipline that had grown lax. For centuries Roman armies had been raised only for temporary purposes involving conquest or defense from invaders. It was only during the imperial period that the legions became permanent standing forces that maintained static garrisons. As such, complacency from inactivity was a genuine concern. In addition to personally drilling the men (and performing such training right along with them), defense works were inspected, men of quality promoted and arrangements for military supply and logistics were settled.

From Germania, Hadrian continued north to Britannia where the matter of a defined controllable border was an ultimate concern. Unlike other frontier provinces such as Germania, which used the Danube and Rhine Rivers as natural borders, Britain had no such clearly marked and defensible position. Despite previous efforts to bring the far north under Roman control (under Agricola during the reign of Domitian) the logistical problems of asserting dominance over the scattered highland tribes made such efforts impractical. As northern Britain lacked a naturally defensible position, Hadrian ordered the situation remedied by the building of a massive wall to separate Rome from barbarian. Hadrian's Wall was built by legionaries (contrary to popular opinion, Roman armies rather than slaves had always been responsible for building not only defense works, but roads and sometimes aqueducts) in a massive effort that spanned eight years (AD 122 - 130).

The wall, stretching for 80 miles between modern Carlisle in the west and Newcastle in the east, was between 8 and 10 ft. thick and as high as 15 feet tall. Mile castles were built at 1 mile intervals (hence the name) and were garrisoned by auxilia (numbering approximately 9,000 men at any given time). Though the wall itself was a formidable defensive structure, its ultimate purpose was not truly to serve as a barrier, but as a deterrent to tribal aggression and perhaps more importantly, to act as a funnel forcing trade and civilian traffic through well regulated defensible positions.

From Britain, Hadrian continued south to Hispania and then to Mauretania in Northern Africa, where a revolt of the Moors was suppressed. From the African coastal city of Cyrene, Hadrian continued east (which he preferred due its Hellenistic nature) visiting Crete, Syria, Pontus, Bithynia, Asia Minor and circling back through Thracia, Moesia, Dacia, Pannonia, Greece, Athens and Sicily before finally returning to Rome in AD 125. Spending just a few years in Italy, Hadrian was once again consumed by the 'wanderlust' and returned to Athens by AD 129. Hadrian held a fascination for Greek philosophy and culture and as such would visit Athens at least three times during his reign. The city, too, would benefit greatly from the emperor's patronage in the form of numerous building projects and improvements. The 'Greekling' as Hadrian came to be known, next journeyed from Athens back to Asia, then to Pamphylia, Phrygia, Cilicia, Syria, Cappadocia, Pontus, Antioch and Judaea by AD 130.

Hadrian's journey would continue to Aegyptus, again to Syria, Asia and Athens and eventually back to Rome in AD 132, but it was in Judaea that Hadrian's ambitious plans took a turn for the worse. In most of his provincial visits he was greeted enthusiastically thanks in part to gifts he offered to the populace, coupled with various public works projects. In the home of the Jews, however, there was a natural enmity carried over from the revolts during Trajan's reign and Hadrian paid little heed to the volatility of the region. First, he planned to rebuild Jerusalem (largely razed by Titus in AD 70) in the manner of a Roman city, complete with a temple to Jupiter where the Great Temple of Jerusalem once stood. While this affront to the religious sensibilities of the Jews passed without major incident, it planted the seeds of discontent. Two years later Hadrian, whose Hellenistic sensibilities found several strange Jewish customs to be repulsive, passed a law forbidding the Jewish practice of circumcision. As unrest began to stir, the collapse of the tomb of Solomon in Jerusalem due to Roman construction activity, was the final catalyst to set off wide spread revolt.

The revolt, led by Simon ben Kosiba (or Bar Kochba for 'son of star' indicating that ben Kosiba was considered a messiah), proved to be yet another difficult challenge for the Romans in Judaea. Lasting for three years (forcing Hadrian to return and remain in the east from AD 134 - 136), thanks in large part to the Jew's wise policy of avoiding direct large scale engagements with Roman legions, the destruction of the province and loss of life was devastating. According to Cassius Dio, nearly 1,000 Jewish villages and just fewer than 600,000 people were killed in various engagements. The Roman losses too were considerable. Having used at least three full legions, numerous auxilia and detachments from several other nearby legions it is assumed - because it disappears from historical records after this point - that at least one legion, XXII Deiotariana, was completely destroyed in the uprising and never reconstituted.

When the Romans were eventually victorious in AD 136, Hadrian's punishment was severe. Dead Jews were left unburied and to rot in the streets for years and many others were sold as slaves. Jewish temples were replaced by Pagan equivalents, Rabbis were imprisoned and executed, it was forbidden to teach Mosaic Law or to own religious scrolls and the people were forbidden even from entering Jerusalem. To drive the point home, the city was even renamed to Aelia Capitolina and Judaea itself to Palestinae. Following the brutal suppressions of both Trajan and Hadrian, the Jews had finally settled under Roman control and would never again rise up against them.


HADRIAN:

Roman emperor (117-138). At the very beginning of his reign he was called upon to suppress the final outbreaks of Jewish rebellion at Cyrene and Alexandria. According to a late but trustworthy source, he is said to have enticed the Jews of Alexandria into the open country, where about 50,000 of them were killed by his soldiers (Eliyahu R. xxx. 3). Afterward he seems to have avoided conflict with the Jews and to have granted them certain privileges. The Jewish sibyl, in fact, praises him (Sibyllines, v. 248) and Jewish legend says that R. Joshua b. Hananiah was on friendly terms with him, and that Hadrian intended to rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem (Gen. R. lxiv.). This agrees with the statement of Epiphanius ("De Mensuris et Ponderibus," § 14) that the emperor commissioned the proselyte Akylas (Aquila)—who, according to the rabbinical legend, was related to him—to supervise the building at Jerusalem, this of course referring to the city and not to the Temple. Other Christian sources, as Chrysostom, Cedrenus, and Nicephorus Callistus, say that the Jews had intended to build the Temple themselves but a passagein the Epistle of Barnabas (xvi. 4)—though its interpretation is disputed among scholars—seems to indicate that the Jews expected the pagans to rebuild the Temple.

Scholars also differ as to the cause of the rebellion. According to Gregorovius (comp. Schlatter, "Die Tage Trajans und Hadrians," p. 2), "Palestinians instituted the kingdom of Jerusalem as a protection against the oppressions of Hadrian." Other scholars, however, say that the institution of the Messianic kingdom followed upon the rebuilding of the Temple. Even the ancient sources differ on this point. Thus, Spartianus ("Hadrianus," § 14) reports that the Jews rebelled because circumcision was interdicted while the more reliable Dion Cassius says (lxix. 12) that Hadrian attempted to turn Jerusalem into a pagan city, which the Jews regarded as an abomination, and they therefore rebelled. It is possible that both of these measures were responsible for the rebellion on the other hand, it is also possible that they were merely the consequences of it. Hadrian, who had a gentle disposition, was lauded throughout the great empire as a benefactor he indeed so proved himself on his many journeys. Palestinian cities like Cæsarea, Tiberias, Gaza, and Petra owed much to him and his presence in Judea in 130 is commemorated on coins with the inscription "Adventui Aug[usti] Judææ." He therefore could have had no intention of offending the Jews but as a true Roman he believed only in the Roman "sacra" (Spartianus, l.c. § 22). It may have happened that in his zeal to rebuild destroyed cities he had disregarded the peculiarities of the Jews. The law against circumcision was founded on earlier Roman laws, and did not affect the Jews only. So long as the emperor was in Syria and Egypt the Jews remained quiet but after his departure in 132 the rebellion under Bar Kokba broke out.

It seems that Hadrian himself remained in Judea until the rebellion had been put down (Darmesteter, in "R. E. J." i. 49 et seq.), and he may have mentioned the Jews in his autobiography, a point that Dion Cassius dwells upon but he did not use the customary formula in his report to the Senate, that he and the army were well (Dion Cassius, l.c.), for the Roman army also was suffering. After the dearly bought victory in 135, Hadrian received for the second time the title of "imperator," as inscriptions show. Now only could he resume the building, on the ruins of Jerusalem, of the city Ælia Capitolina, called after him and dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus. A series of magnificent edifices that Hadrian erected in Jerusalem are enumerated in a source that gathered its information probably from Julianus Africanus ("Chron. Paschale," ed. Dindorf, i. 474 "J. Q. R." xiv. 748). The temple of Jupiter towered on the site of the ancient Temple, with a statue of Hadrian in the interior (Jerome, Comm. on Isaiah ii. 9). The Jews now passed through a period of bitter persecution Sabbaths, festivals, the study of the Torah, and circumcision were interdicted, and it seemed as if Hadrian desired to annihilate the Jewish people. His anger fell upon all the Jews of his empire, for he imposed upon them an oppressive poll-tax (Appian, "Syrian War," § 50). The persecution, however, did not last long, for Antoninus Pius revoked the cruel edicts.

After this the Jews did not hold Hadrian's memory in high honor the Talmud and Midrash follow his name with the curse "Crush his bones." His reign is called the time of persecution and danger, and the blood of many martyrs is charged to his account. He is considered the type of a pagan king (Gen. R. lxiii. 7).


Bronze head from a statue of the Emperor Hadrian

Hadrian (reigned 117-138 C.E.), once a tribune (staff officer) in three different legions of the Roman army and commander of a legion in one of Trajan’s wars, was often shown in military uniform. He was clearly keen to project the image of an ever-ready soldier, but other conclusions have been drawn from his surviving statues.

Fixing the Empire’s borders

When Hadrian inherited the Roman Empire, his predecessor, Trajan’s military campaigns had over-stretched it. Rebellions against Roman rule raged in several provinces and the empire was in serious danger. He ruthlessly put down rebellions and strengthened his borders. He built defensive barriers in Germany and Northern Africa.

Rome’s first emperor, Augustus (reigned 27 B.C.E.– 14 C.E.), had also suffered severe military setbacks, and took the decision to stop expanding the empire. In Hadrian’s early reign Augustus was an important role model. He had a portrait of him on his signet ring and kept a small bronze bust of him among the images of the household gods in his bedroom.

Like Augustus before him, Hadrian began to fix the limits of the territory that Rome could control. He withdrew his army from Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq, where a serious insurgency had broken out, and abandoned the newly conquered provinces of Armenia and Assyria, as well as other parts of the empire.

Hadrian’s travels

Hadrian is also famous as the emperor who built the eighty-mile-long wall across Britain, from the Solway Firth to the River Tyne at Wallsend: “to separate the barbarians from the Romans” in the words of his biographer. This head comes from a statue of Hadrian that probably stood in Roman London in a public space such as a forum. It would have been one and a quarter times life-size.

This statue may have been put up to commemorate Hadrian’s visit to Britain in 122 C.E. Hadrian travelled very extensively throughout the Empire, and imperial visits generally gave rise to program of rebuilding and beautification of cities. There are many known marble statues of him, but this example made in bronze is a rare survival.

Born in Rome but of Spanish descent, Hadrian was adopted by the emperor Trajan as his successor. Having served with distinction on the Danube and as governor of Syria, Hadrian never lost his fascination with the empire and its frontiers.

At Tivoli, to the east of Rome, he built an enormous palace, a microcosm of all the different places he had visited. He was an enthusiastic public builder, and perhaps his most celebrated building is the Pantheon, the best preserved Roman building in the world. Hadrian’s Wall is a good example of his devotion to Rome’s frontiers and the boundaries he established were retained for nearly three hundred years.

A lover of culture

Hadrian was the first Roman emperor to wear a full beard. This has usually been seen as a mark of his devotion to Greece and Greek culture.

Hadrian openly displayed his love of Greek culture. Some of the senate scornfully referred to him as Graeculus (“the Greekling”). Beards had been a marker of Greek identity since classical times, whereas a clean-shaven look was considered more Roman. However, in the decades before Hadrian became emperor, beards had come to be worn by wealthy young Romans and seem to have been particularly prevalent in the military. Furthermore, one literary source, the Historia Augusta, claims that Hadrian wore a beard to hide blemishes on his face.

Hadrian fell seriously ill, perhaps with a form of dropsy (swelling caused by excess fluid), and retired to the seaside resort of Baiae on the bay of Naples, where he died in 138 C.E.

The image of the Roman Emperor

Torso of a statue of the emperor Hadrian wearing a cuirass, c. 130-141 C.E., 137 cm high, from Cyrene, northern Africa © Trustees of the British Museum. In this statue we see Hadrian presented as the commander-in-chief. We know from ancient literary sources that Hadrian was particularly keen to project a strong military image.

The cult of the Emperor combined religious and political elements and was a vital factor in Roman military and civil administration. Deceased rulers were often deified, and though the living Emperor, who was the state’s chief priest, was not himself worshipped as a god, his “numen,” the spirit of his power and authority, was.

The image of the ruler and information about his achievements was spread primarily through coinage. In addition, statues and busts, in stone and bronze and occasionally even precious metal, were placed in a variety of official and public settings. They varied in size: colossal, life-size and smaller. Such images symbolized the power of the state and the essential unity of the Empire.

As well as the political importance of representations of the Emperor, his physical appearance and that of his consort and family were familiar to people throughout the Empire. This influenced fashion and such representations can assist the modern archaeologist and art-historian. For example, beards became fashionable after the accession of Hadrian, and the hairstyles of Empresses and other Imperial women may be seen in private portraiture and decorative art, even in remote provinces such as Britain.


Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Pecile

Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Venus Temple

Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Maritime Theatre

Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Maritime Theatre

Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Detail of a mosaic floor

Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Building with three exedras

Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Building with fishpond

Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Serapeum

Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Canopus

Tivoli - Hadrian's Villa - Canopus

Tivoli - Villa Adriana - Complesso del Canopo

Tivoli - Villa Adriana - Canopo, Statua - copyright De Agostini

Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli is one of the Italian UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Built by the request of the Emperor Hadrian, the Villa is a monumental living complex that even today continues to display the lavishness and enormous power of Ancient Rome.

In Tivoli, Hadrian’s Villa (Villa Adriana) was designed to be a home for the Roman Emperor Hadrian in 117 A.D. Construction began on top of the foundation of a pre-existing villa that belonged to his wife Vibia Sabina. The Villa, located 28 km (17.4 mi) from the Capital on the Monti Tiburtini, could be reached via the ancient Roman roads Tiburtina and Prenestina, or else by the River Aniene.
The area was chosen for its abundant waters and availability of four aqueducts that passed through to Rome: Anio Vetus, Anio Nobus, Aqua Marcia and Aqua Claudia.
One can still find here the sulphur water springs (the Acque Albule) that the Emperor enjoyed – today’s Tivoli Baths!

Given archaeological evidence and certain written sources, we know that the Roman villa and the domus were partitioned into different settings with precise functions and according to a scheme that is often repeated for example, the floor-plan of Hadrian’s Villa is comparable to those of the Villa of Mysteries in Pompeii and the Villa of Poppaea in Oplontis (near Torre Annunziata). Despite the fact that the Villa utilizes traditional architectonic language and iconography, it was in any case projected in a rather different, original style.

The Villa's Structure
It is shaped by a series of interdependent and inter-locking structures, each one with its own individual purpose: the structure with three exedrae, die Nymph Stadium, a fishing structure, die four-sided portico, the small thermal water baths, and the Praetors’ (Roman bodyguards’) vestibule.

The symmetries and the interdependence of the structures – connected one to another via guarded access points created for both the privacy and security of the Emperor – make it clear that together they composed a monumental compound that mirrored Hadrian's image as a great and sophisticated man.

In fact, to show off his tastes and inclinations, he reproduced inside this residence the places and monuments that had fascinated him during his innumerable travels.

Inside the Villa complex, one can see the Poecile, a huge garden surrounded by an arcade with a swimming pool. This area was built so that one could take walks whether it was winter or summer. Then there is the Canopus, a long water basin embellished with columns and statues that culminate in a temple topped by an umbrella dome, and the remains of two bath areas: the Grandi Terme en die Piccole Terme (the large and small baths or thermae). The former contained a frigidarium or large pool of cold water (open-air) and a round room with a coffered dome these coffers were rather particular in that they opened into five large windows. Covered in valuable and decorative stucco, these structures were purposed for the Imperial Family and their guests.

Die Grandi Terme, reserved for the personnel of the Villa, consisted of a heating system located under the floor, and a circular room outfitted as a sudatio or sauna. Noteworthy is the large vaulted-arch ceiling in the central room, still in perfect condition (structurally) today, despite the collapse of one of the four supporting piers. Some of the – relatively – best preserved areas of the villa are the accademia, the stadio or arena, the Imperial Palace, the Philosophers’ Room, die Greek Theatre, en die Piazza d'oro, a majestic square the purpose of which was to be a “representation” it was large enough to allow a vast peristyle decorated in refined stucco. Finally, the splendid Teatro Marittimo (Maritime Theatre) is an island of sorts elaborated with an iconic colonnade and circumscribed by a canal. This is where the Emperor isolated himself when he wanted to think amidst silence and tranquility.

To learn more, explore the history of Hadrian's Villa.

Useful Information

Geolocation
State: Italy
Region: Lazio
Province: Rome

Useful Link
Address: Largo Marguerite Yourcenar, 1 - Villa Adriana - Tivoli (RM)
Tel: +39 0774 530203
Website: Official website

Ure
Opening hours of the Archaeological Area
January 2-31: 9 am - 5 pm
February 1-29: 9 am - 6 pm
March 1 – last Saturday of March: 9 am - 6:30 pm
Last Sunday of March – April 30: 9 am - 7 pm
1 May - 31 August: Ore 9 am - 7.30 pm
September 1-30: 9 am - 7 pm
October 1 – last Saturday of October: 9 am – 6:30 pm
Last Sunday of October - December 31: 9 am – 5 pm
Closings: January 1, December 25

Services
- Guided tours and audio guides for individuals, groups and schools (Italian, English, French, German and Spanish).
- Parking and bookshop.