Geskiedenis Podcasts

Oracle Bone

Oracle Bone


Oracle bene

Die interpretasie van skeure in verhitte skilpaddoppe en dierbene as waarsêermiddel was 'n prominente kenmerk van die ou Chinese kultuur in die eeue en millennia vC.

Die gebruikte materiaal - hoofsaaklik die plastrale (maag) skulpe van skilpaaie en die skouerblaaie van beeste of waterbuffels - is uit die suide van China of elders ingevoer, wat dit relatief kosbare voorwerpe maak. Hulle is voorberei deur geskraap en gepoleer te word, moontlik geweek en gedroog, en met gleuwe ingeskryf, voordat sjamane vrae of ander inskripsies daarop aangebring het. Die dop of been is daarna verhit totdat dit gebars het, en die vorm, lengte en plasing van die skeure is dan deur 'n sjamaan of deur die koning self geïnterpreteer om verskillende betekenisse of implikasies vir die koning of koninkryk te hê. Elemente van die interpretasie is daarna op dieselfde gebarste stuk been of dop ingeskryf. Vrae wat aan die geeste gestel is, het 'n verskeidenheid onderwerpe of tipes gedek, maar het dikwels betrekking gehad op bevestiging dat dit gunstig was (of ten minste nie verkeerd nie) om betrokke te raak by 'n spesifieke bouprojek, militêre optrede of dies meer. die koning se drome, of oor verskillende aangeleenthede wat verband hou met die gesondheid van die koning en sy gesin, insluitend oor die veiligheid van sy geslag. By die uitvoering van hierdie ritueel is daar moontlik geglo dat die koning 'n geestelike reis, of 'n geestelike verband, onderneem het om met voorouers of gode te praat. Musiek, dans en alkoholiese drankies was moontlik betrokke.

Dit is onduidelik hoeveel individue by die ritueel betrokke was. Alhoewel daar aanduidings is dat die koning self die interpretasie uitgevoer het, is dit onduidelik of hy of iemand anders die opskrif op die bene gedoen het, of die orakel of sjamaan wat aanvanklik die vrae of bekommernisse van die koning ontvang het, dieselfde persoon was wat ingeskryf het die inskripsies op die bene, of dit dieselfde persoon was wat na 'n voltooide ritueel die ingeskrewe bene weggehou het as 'n rekord wat later geraadpleeg moet word. Hierdie vele funksies is moontlik deur 'n enkele individu of deur verskillende individue in verskillende beroepe of poste uitgevoer. Ώ ]

Daar word gesê dat die praktyk in die 3de millennium vC in Noord -China begin het, en dit word beskou as die vroegste voorbeeld van sulke praktyke ter wêreld. Die praktyk bereik sy hoogtepunt in China onder die Shang-dinastie in die middel van die 2de millennium vC, en gaan voort tot in die Zhou-dinastie, en sterf uiteindelik uit voor die begin van die gewone era. Intussen het soortgelyke praktyke ontstaan ​​onder ander kulture regoor die wêreld, waarvan sommige tot in die 20ste eeu steeds met sulke praktyke deelgeneem het.

Orakelbene is ontdek in argeologiese opgrawings in China begin in 1898, en sedertdien is meer as 200 000 orakelbeenfragmente gevind, en#912 ] lewer 'n paar van die vroegste bewyse van Chinese skryfwerk, wetgewing en bestuur, geestelike oortuiging en praktyk, en kultuur anders. Sommige sulke been- en dopfragmente bevat waardevolle inligting, soos die name van konings, koninkryke (state) en name van die heerskappy/era.


Chinese museum bied $ 15,000 aan vir almal wat hierdie ou beenraaisel kan kraak

Dit is fassinerend. 'N Museum in China bied $ 15 000 aan vir almal wat 'n paar ou karakters kan ontsyfer. Hulle probeer die raaisel agter hul versameling “ -orakelbene kraak. ” Hulle dateer meer as 3000 jaar terug na die Shang -dinastie. Die bene is 'n paar van die vroegste voorbeelde van wat hulle pyromancy noem, of waarsêery deur vuur.

Orakelbene is gebruik om die toekoms te voorspel vir dinge soos die weer, militêre uitkomste en persoonlike lotgevalle. Eerstens maak hulle die bene skoon van alle vleis, en dan word dit glad geskraap. Daarna salf hulle hulle met bloed voordat hulle met 'n datum ingegraveer word, wie die waarsêer was en wat dit sou voorspel. Die bene word dan blootgestel aan hoë hitte in 'n put. Nadat hulle gebars het, sou die waarsêer die krake in die bene lees om die toekoms te vertel.

Van Mother Nature Network:

Gewild: Die 15 beste konserwatiewe nuuswebwerwe op die internet

As die ontsyfering van ou karakters iets wat u maklik kan vind, is 'n museum in China bereid om goed te betaal vir u dienste.

Die South China Morning Post berig dat die National Museum of Chinese Writing in Anyang 'n wêreldwye beroep gedoen het om hulp om die betekenis agter gegraveerde karakters in die versameling van “ orakelbene te ontrafel. In die Shang -dinastie is hierdie bene 'n paar van die vroegste voorbeelde van vuurpyl, of waarsêery deur middel van vuur.

'N Antieke vorm van waarsêery

Orakelbene is tydens die Shang -dinastie (1600 tot 1046 v.C.) gebruik om toekomstige gebeure soos weer, die sukses van militêre veldtogte en persoonlike lotgevalle te voorspel. Die bene is voorberei deur dit van vleis skoon te maak en dan te krap of glad te maak om 'n plat oppervlak te skep. Gesalf met bloed, is hulle gegraveer met 'n datum, die waarsêer (soms selfs die Shang -koning self in hierdie rol), en die onderwerp van die waarsêery. Nadat hulle blootgestel was aan intense hitte in 'n kuil, sou die bene kraak en die waarsêer sou hierdie krake vir antwoorde interpreteer.

Nadat die bene gebruik is, is dit in spesiale kuile ​​weggegooi. Daar is gevind dat een put wat in 1936 opgegrawe is, meer as 17 000 bene bevat. Hierdie tipe bene is ontdek in 1899. Hulle het nou meer as 200 000 orakelbene opgegrawe. Baie meer is vernietig deur Chinese kruiedokters en aptekers. Hulle beskou die bene as magiese eienskappe en sal dit maal om allerhande siektes en wonde te behandel.

Die karakters lyk baie soos Chinese karakters. Maar kenners is verbaas daaroor. Aangesien dit lank gelede was en baie plekke hul name verander het, was dit moeilik om dit te verifieer, het Liu Fenghua, 'n spesialis in orakelbeen van die Zhengzhou Universiteit, aan Chengdu Economic Daily gesê. Om finansiële redes het baie orakelbeengeleerdes hul navorsingsfokus na ander vakke verander. ” Daarom bied hulle die prys van $ 15 000 vir die ontsyfering van die bene aan. Dit ’s per karakter. Sodra dit goedgekeur is deur twee aparte taalkenners, word die geld oorhandig en kan die persoon 'n ander karakter probeer kraak. Slegs een sukses kan die loopbaan van 'n Chinese taalkundige maak. Wonder wie dit sal wees.

'N Orakelbeenput ontbloot in Yinxu, Anyang. (Foto: Xuan Che/Wikimedia)

'N Gebarste skilpadplastron gesny met karakters uit die Shang -dinastie. (Foto: BabelStone/Wikimedia)


9b. Shang -dinastie en mdash China se eerste aangetekende geskiedenis

Die geskiedenis in China begin met die Shang -dinastie. Geleerdes redeneer vandag oor die begin van die dinastie, met menings wat wissel van die middel van die 18de tot die middel van die 16de eeu v.G.J. Ongeag die datums, het 'n gebeurtenis meer as enige ander 'n aanduiding van die koms van die Shang -dinastie en die Bronstydperk.

Dit was tydens die Shang -dinastie dat bronswerk algemeen geword het. Duisende artefakte uit die ruïnes van Yin, die laaste hoofstad van die Shang, is in die laat 1920's en 30's opgegrawe. Bronshouers om te drink is tydens rituele seremonies gebruik, terwyl bronswaens en byle in die geveg gebruik is. Aangesien die metaal met koninklikes geassosieer word, bevat die grafte van Shang -konings honderde klein bronsvoorwerpe, selfs haarnaaldjies.

Een van die min ongestoorde grafte was die van die legendariese Fuhao, vrou van Wu-ting. Haar graf bevat op sigself 468 bronswerke en 775 stukke jade. Sommige van die bronsvoorwerpe wat gevind is, bevat die eerste Chinese karakters wat ooit geskryf is. Hierdie karakters is baie eenvoudig van aard en verteenwoordig dikwels die naam van die eienaar van die voorwerp.


Orakels wat op skilpaddoppe geskryf is, dien as die vroegste bewys van die ontwikkeling van 'n skryfstelsel in China.

Hulle Bene

Benewens brons, kan voorbeelde van die vroeë Chinese skryfstelsel op orakelbene gevind word, 'n ander soort artefak wat kenmerkend is van die Shang -dinastie. Ou Chinese priesters gebruik gereeld skilpaddoppe en beesbene om vrae oor die toekoms te beantwoord. Hulle interpreteer die krake wat gevorm word deur gate wat in die bene geslaan is. Orakelbene was ook 'n manier vir die priesters om die geskiedenis van die dinastie en die tydlyn van konings neer te skryf.

Vandag is meer as 150 000 orakelbene teruggevind. Ongelukkig het baie meer artefakte wat vroeë Chinese skrif bevat, verlore gegaan. Skrywe wat op boeke van bamboesstroke en sy gemaak is, kan eeue se begrawe op die aarde nie oorleef nie. Baie van diegene wat wel oorleef het, is verbrand deur die eerste keiser van die Ch'in -dinastie in ongeveer 100 v.G.J.

Shang Society

Uit wat oorleef het, het argeoloë en historici baie van die Shang -kultuur geleer. Die Shang was vaardige werkers in been, jade, keramiek, klip, hout, skulpe en brons, soos bewys deur die ontdekking van winkels wat aan die buitewyke van opgegrawe paleise gevind is. Die mense van die Shang -dinastie het van die land geleef, en met verloop van tyd het hulle hulle permanent op plase gevestig in plaas van as nomades rond te dwaal.


Die Shang -dinastie het in die 17de eeu v.G.J. as die eerste ware Chinese dinastie. Die grense daarvan word in grys getoon.

Om te beskerm teen oorstromings deur die Yangtze- en Geelrivier, het die ou Shang komplekse vorme van besproeiing en vloedbeheer ontwikkel. Die boerdery van gierst-, koring-, rys- en garsgewasse was die belangrikste voedselbronne, maar jag was nie ongewoon nie. Huisdiere wat deur die Shang grootgemaak is, sluit varke, honde, skape, osse en selfs sywurms in.

Soos baie ander antieke kulture, het die Shang 'n sosiale piramide geskep, met die koning aan die bokant, gevolg deur die militêre adel, priesters, handelaars en boere. Begrafnisse was een manier waarop die sosiale klasse onderskei is. Die elite is begrawe in uitgebreide putgrafte met verskillende voorwerpe van rykdom vir 'n moontlike gebruik in die hiernamaals. Selfs 'n olifant is tussen die ruïnes van 'n ou graf gevind. Die mense wat hierdie grafte gebou het, is soms lewend begrawe saam met die dooie koninklikes. Die mindere klasse is begrawe in kuile ​​van wisselende grootte op grond van status, terwyl mense van die laagste klasse soms selfs putte neergegooi is.

Begin om te glo

Alle klasse het egter een ding in gemeen & mdash -godsdiens. Die belangrikste filosofieë om later Taoïsme, Confucianisme en Boeddhisme en mdash te vorm, is nog nie gevorm nie. Volksgodsdiens tydens die Shang -dinastie was politeïsties, wat beteken dat die mense baie gode aanbid het.


Hierdie bronsbeeld van 'n menslike kop met goue blaar is tipies van die brons kunswerke wat tydens die Shang -dinastie geskep is.

Voorvaderaanbidding was ook baie belangrik vir die Shang. Daar word gedink dat die sukses van gewasse en die gesondheid en welstand van mense gebaseer was op die geluk van dooie voorouers. As die voorouers van 'n gesin tevrede was, sou die lewe vir daardie gesin voorspoedig wees. As die geeste egter nie tevrede was nie, kan groot tragedies plaasvind.

Boonop was Shang Ti, die 'heer in die hoogte', die god wat almal tydens die Shang -dinastie aanbid het. Daar word geglo dat Shang Ti die skakel tussen mense en hemelse wesens is. Daar is gedink dat die siele van voorouers saam met Shang Ti besoek het en die instruksies van hom ontvang het. Dit was dus baie belangrik om seker te maak dat Shang Ti gelukkig was. Dit is gedoen met verskillende rituele en gebede, offerandes en soms selfs menslike offers.


Badass Ladies of Chinese History: Fu Hao

“Badass Ladies ” bring u uiteenlopende Chinese vroue wat meer gedoen het as om die helfte van die lug in stand te hou, van worstelaars tot wetenskaplikes, dokters tot filosowe. Ons kyk elke week na die verhale van die vroue wat gehelp het om China te maak soos dit vandag is.

Die slegte dame van hierdie week is 'n ernstig antieke vegterskoningin wat tydens die Shang -dinastie gebore is. Die Shang -dinastie regeer Oos -China van 1600 BCE tot 1046 BCE, ongeveer dieselfde tyd regeer die groot farao's Egipte. Die bekendheid van Fu Hao (妇 好) het begin toe sy met koning Wu Ding trou. Hulle huwelik was deel van sy hardhandige diplomatieke strategie om met een vrou uit elke omliggende stam te trou. Teen die einde van sy lewe het koning Wu meer as 60 vroue gehad, maar Fu Hao was verreweg die prominentste.

As vrou van die koning het Fu Hao se naam af en toe verskyn op orakelbene wat by argeologiese terreine van die Shang -dinastie gevind is. Dit is soms gebruik tydens gebede vir swangerskap of beskerming teen siektes, wat baie gereeld by vroue voorkom, maar ook in meer verrassende kontekste gebruik is. Orakelbene was ingeskryf met wense dat sy haar vyande in die geveg sou verslaan of suksesvolle verowerings sou ondergaan. Nog ander het haar versoek om rituele namens die koning self uit te voer! Uit hierdie inskripsies het argeoloë die raaisel van haar lewensverhaal saamgevoeg.

Fu Hao het deur die geledere van die koning se gesinne gestyg om sy gunstelingvrou te word. Sy het nie baie tyd in die paleis deurgebring nie, aangesien dit blykbaar grotendeels militêre veldtogte oor omliggende stamme en koninkryke was. Fu Hao het stamme wat geslagte lank teen die Shang geveg het, verslaan en blywende vrede verseker en die gebied van die Shang -dinastie uitgebrei.

In 'n veldtog teen die Ba -mense het Fu Hao die vroegste aangetekende hinderlaag in die Chinese geskiedenis gelei. Op die hoogtepunt van haar militêre mag beveel sy meer as 13 000 soldate en het verskeie generaals onder haar gedien. Sy was so 'n talentvolle bevelvoerder dat haar man na haar dood opofferings gemaak het om haar geestelike hulp in die geveg te vra.

Asof haar militêre mag nie indrukwekkend genoeg was nie, toon rekords dat Fu Hao 'n aktiewe politikus was en die koning adviseer het oor binnelandse aangeleenthede en buitelandse betrekkinge. Sy het 'n aktiewe rol gespeel in godsdienstige rituele van die tyd, en het 'n verskeidenheid seremonies uitgevoer om guns by gode en geeste te lok, asook om die toekoms te voorspel deur die krake in orakelbene te lees. Sy het ook haar eie heerskappy aan die rand van die Shang -gebied behou, grond wat sy tydens 'n militêre verowering gewen het.

Soos baie figure uit die Shang -dinastie, was Fu Hao gehul in misterie, wat deur sommige meer mitologies as histories beskou word - totdat argeoloë haar graf gevind het. In 1976 val argeoloë op 'n massiewe graf buite die stad Anyang, die grootste ongestoorde Shang -graf wat ooit ontdek is. Binne het hulle meer as 400 brons gevind, 700 jade -figure, putte gevul met orakelbene en 'n magdom ou wapens. Sestien menslike lyke is later ontdek, waarskynlik Fu Hao se slawe, met bewyse van menslike offerande ter plaatse.

Die naam van Fu Hao is aangetref op baie van die rituele bene in die graf, en beskrywings van haar begrafnis stem ooreen met dié in ander bronne. Dit was beslis 'n ekstatiese oomblik van Indiana Jones vir die argeoloë.

Die ontdekkings in die graf bevestig alles wat oor haar geskryf is. Uit die orakelbene wat saam met haar begrawe is, het navorsers geleer dat haar man, die koning, haar spesifiek opdrag gegee het om rituele en offers te voer, wat beteken dat sy 'n belangrike godsdienstige figuur was, moontlik met spesiale kundigheid. Baie van die wapens wat saam met haar begrawe is, is versier en met edelgesteentes bedek, wat beide haar hoë status en verbintenis met die weermag toon.

Deur die bevindings by haar graf, leef Fu Hao se nalatenskap as 'n slegte dame nie net voort nie, maar haar lewe en dood lewer 'n ryk bewys vir wetenskaplikes en historici om meer te ontdek oor die wêreld van antieke China.


Foto's in die vlamme

In sommige gemeenskappe is bene verbrand en sjamane of priesters sou die resultate gebruik om te skree. Hierdie metode, wat pyro-osteomancy genoem word, behels die gebruik van die bene van 'n pas geslagte dier. In dele van China tydens die Shang -dinastie is die skouerblad, of skouerblad, van 'n groot os gebruik. Vrae is op die been aangebring, dit is in 'n vuur geplaas, en die gevolglike krake van die hitte het sieners en waarsêers die antwoorde op hul vrae gegee.

Daar word geglo dat die Kelte 'n soortgelyke metode gebruik het deur die skouerbeen van 'n jakkals of skaap te gebruik. Sodra die vuur 'n warm genoeg temperatuur bereik het, sou daar skeure op die been ontstaan, en dit het verborge boodskappe onthul aan diegene wat opgelei is in hul leeswerk. In sommige gevalle is die bene gekook voordat dit gebrand het om dit te versag.


Oracle Bone - Geskiedenis

21:18 Antieke Egipte Geen kommentaar

Bronsvate en Oracle Bones
Die meeste mense tydens die Shang -dinastie het in klein boeredorpies gewoon. Die boere het graan verbou, hoenders en varke aangehou en sywurms vir sydoek grootgemaak. Handwerkers het bronsgereedskap, wapens en pragtige voorwerpe gemaak wat vir rituele gebruik is. 'N Ritueel is 'n vaste manier om 'n seremonie uit te voer.

Die Shang -mense het brons rituele voorwerpe tydens seremonies gebruik om hul voorouers wat gesterf het, te eer. Voorouers is familielede verder as grootouers. Vanweë die belangrikheid van die rituele het die Shang baie vaardigheid, energie en tyd daaraan gewy om brons rituele voorwerpe te maak. Soms het die vervaardiger van 'n bronshouer 'n inskripsie daarin gegraveer wat vertel wie dit gemaak het en watter voorouer dit geëer het. Sulke inskripsies is een van die vroegste voorbeelde van Chinese skryfwerk.

Die ou Chinese het hul voorouers en verskeie gode aanbid. Voorouers is aanbid omdat hulle gedink het dat hulle baie wys was en die lewens van die lewendes kon lei. Die meeste gode wat Shang -mense aanbid het, was natuurgode. Die Shang het tot die gode van wind, reën en vuur gebid, sowel as die gode van rigtings noord, suid, oos en wes. Die hoofgod van die Shang is Shang Di genoem, wat "God op die hoogte" beteken. Hierdie god se naam dui daarop dat die mense geglo het dat hy in die lug woon en toesig gehou het oor alles wat hulle gedoen het.

Die ou Shang het gedink dat hul voorouers met die
gode. Voorouers is gevra om die magtige gode van die natuur aan te moedig om goed te wees vir die mens. Die Shang was bang dat woedende gode rampe, siektes of vyandelike aanvalle kan meebring.

Shang -konings sou dikwels hul voorouers raad vra oor 'n wye verskeidenheid onderwerpe. Om die antwoorde op sy vrae te leer, het die koning die hulp van 'n waarsêer nodig gehad. 'N Waarsêer was 'n persoon wat vermoedelik met die geeste van die dooies kon kommunikeer.
Die waarsêer lê dierbene of skilpaaie uit. Dan sou die waarsêer met warm metaalstokkies aan die bene of skulpe raak. Die hitte het veroorsaak dat krake op die bene en skulpe ontstaan ​​het. Die waarsêer het toe die bene en skulpe aan die koning gegee. Die koning van Shang het die krake 'gelees' om die antwoorde op sy vrae uit te vind.

Lady Hao (ongeveer 1250 v.C.)
Baie van die inligting wat ons oor die Shang -mense het, kom uit hul grafte. Ongelukkig is die meeste Shang -grafte beroof voordat dit deur argeoloë ontdek is. Die enigste koninklike Shang -graf wat nie beroof is voor die ontdekking daarvan nie, is die graf van Lady Hao. Dit bevat meer as 460 bronsvoorwerpe en verskeie beelde in jade en ivoor.

Min is bekend oor Lady Hao. Sommige navorsers meen dat sy in die orakelbeeninskrywings van die tyd genoem word as 'n vrou van die koning Wu Ding. Volgens hierdie inskripsies het Lady Hao sekere rituele hanteer en 'n landgoed buite die hoofstad bestuur. Sy het ook een keer militêre veldtogte met meer as 13 000 soldate gelei.


Soortgelyke vrae

Taal Kunste

Aanwysings: Onderstreep die werkwoord in elke sin en skryf dan die huidige hede of toekoms. 1. Ons studeer Engels in Pete se klas. -Underlynstudie en dit is teenwoordig 2. Engels was nie my eerste taal nie.- Ek is verward oor hierdie sin.

Engels

Luther Burbank / afgewentel / meer as 800 nuwe plantvariëteite toekomstige hede verlede *** toekoms perfek Hierdie resep / sal produseer / twee dosyn sjokoladekoekies verlede toekoms perfek *** hede toekoms Sedert sy besering op die baan

Wetenskap

Wat dink wetenskaplikes oor die gemeenskaplike voorouer van walvisse en seekoeie? A. Die dier het twee ledemate. B. Die dier het in water gelewe. C. Die dier leef vandag nog. D. Die dier het miljoene jare gelede gelewe. Watter voorbeeld

V: Marissa ondersoek inligting oor vechtkunstenstudente. Sy het gevind dat 7 uit 12 studente in vechtkunsten elke dag oefen. daar is 144 studente by haar skool. Deel A: Voorspel hoeveel studente elke dag oefen.

In 'n ewekansige steekproef van 30 sesde klasgangers het 9 buite die Verenigde State gereis. Daar is 'n totaal van 120 sesde -gradeerders in die skool. Voorspel hoeveel studente buite die Verenigde State gereis het. A 28 studente B 36

Sosiale studies

Ek het antwoorde nodig op die vrae: Hoe is vervoer gestandaardiseer onder die Qin? A Paaie was dieselfde breedte. B Karre was dieselfde hoogte. C Almal het dieselfde padbelasting betaal. D Die asse van die waens was ewe lank. Watter

Aardrykskunde

Wat is twee redes waarom sommige geograwe vandag glo dat Thomas Malthus se teorie nie gebruik kan word om toekomstige bevolkingsprobleme te voorspel nie? Verduidelik. Wat is die twee redes waarom sommige geograwe vandag huldig met die teorie van Thomas Malthus?

Aardrykskunde

Watter sin is die grammaties korrekste en duidelikste weergawe? 1 punt Realisties gesproke, het dit vir Caesar werklik saak gemaak dat die middel van die meeste maande op die 15de val, veral in Maart, en die Oracle het hom vertel

Ek het 'n vraag wat ek eintlik nie kan oplos nie. Kan iemand my asseblief help? Marissa ondersoek inligting oor gevegskunsstudente. Sy het gevind dat 7 uit 12 gevegskunstenaars elke dag oefen. Daar is 144 vechtkunsten

Algebra

By 'n troeteldierwinkel het Rhonda $ 11,50 betaal vir 3 hondebakke en 4 bene. Kelly $ 13 vir 2 hondehoue ​​en 8 bene. Hoeveel sal Andrew betaal vir 4 hondebakke en 2 bene?

Berekening 3

Die orakelfunksie f (x, y) word hieronder aangebied. Vir elke punt (x, y) wat u invoer, sal die orakel die waarde f (x, y) vertel. Skat die gedeeltelike afgeleide van die funksie op (1.6, -0.0999999999999999) met behulp van die Newton -kwosiënt

Onderwyser hulp

In die klaskamer word die omgekeerde hoofstroom-/insluitingstegniek gebruik A slegs met ligte vertraagde studente B meer gereeld as die hulpbronruimte vir gedragsversteurde studente C om studente met spesiale behoeftes in die meerderheid te plaas D


Oracle Bone - Geskiedenis


Die geskiedenis van China word vertel in tradisionele historiese rekords wat ongeveer 5 000 jaar gelede tot so ver as die Drie Soewereine en Vyf Keisers verwys, aangevul deur argeologiese rekords wat uit die 16de eeu vC dateer. China is een van die oudste deurlopende beskawings ter wêreld. Skilpaaie met merke wat herinner aan ou Chinese geskrifte uit die Shang -dinastie, is omstreeks 1500 v.C. Die Chinese beskawing het sy oorsprong by stadstate in die Yellow River-vallei.

Die geel rivier is genoem omdat dit vanweë die loes wat op die oewer sou ophoop en in die aarde sou sink, 'n geel tint in die water sou veroorsaak. 221 vC is die algemeen aanvaarde jaar toe China verenig word onder 'n groot koninkryk of ryk. Opeenvolgende dinastieë in die Chinese geskiedenis het burokratiese stelsels ontwikkel wat die keiser van China in staat gestel het om die groot gebied te beheer.

China is die eerste keer verenig deur Qin Shi Huang in 221 vC. China het afgewissel tussen tydperke van politieke eenheid en onenigheid, en word soms oorheers deur buitelandse mense, waarvan die meeste in die Chinese bevolking geassimileer is. Kulturele en politieke invloede uit baie dele van Asië, gedra deur opeenvolgende golwe van immigrasie, uitbreiding en assimilasie, het saamgesmelt om die Chinese kultuur te skep.

Van jagter-versamelaars tot boere

Wat tans China is, is meer as 'n miljoen jaar gelede deur Homo erectus bewoon. Onlangse studie toon dat die klipgereedskap wat op die Xiaochangliang -terrein gevind is, magnetostratigrafies gedateer is as 1,36 miljoen jaar gelede. Die argeologiese terrein van Xihoudu in die Shanxi -provinsie is die vroegste aangetekende gebruik van vuur deur Homo erectus, wat 1,27 miljoen jaar gelede dateer.

Die opgrawings by Yuanmou en later Lantian toon vroeë bewoning. Miskien is die bekendste eksemplaar van Homo erectus wat in China gevind is, die sogenaamde Peking-man wat in 1923 ontdek is. Twee aardewerkstukke is opgegrawe by Liyuzui-grot in Liuzhou, Guangxi-provinsie, gedateer 16 500 en 19 000 vC.

Vroeë bewyse vir die proto-Chinese gierstlandbou is tot ongeveer 7 000 vC gedateer op koolstof en word verbind met die Jiahu-webwerf (ook die plek van die vroegste bespeelbare musiekinstrumente). Hierdie tydperk bevat ook die vroegste stadium van die Chinese geskrewe taal (steeds onder bespreking) en die vroegste wynproduksie ter wêreld. Jiahu bevat die Peiligang -kultuur van die provinsie Xinzheng, Henan, waarvan slegs 5% vanaf 2006 opgegrawe is.

Met die landbou het 'n toename in die bevolking, die vermoë om gewasse op te slaan en te herverdeel, en spesialis -vakmanne en administrateurs te ondersteun. In die laat neolitiese tye het die Yellow River -vallei hom begin vestig as 'n kulturele sentrum, waar die eerste dorpe gestig is, en die mees argeologies betekenisvolste in Banpo, Xi'an.

Voorgeskiedenis

Die vroeë geskiedenis van China word bemoeilik deur die gebrek aan 'n geskrewe taal gedurende hierdie tydperk, tesame met die bestaan ​​van dokumente uit latere tydperke wat probeer het om gebeure wat 'n paar eeue tevore plaasgevind het, te beskryf. Die probleem spruit in 'n sekere sin uit eeue se introspeksie van die Chinese mense wat die onderskeid tussen feit en fiksie met betrekking tot hierdie vroeë geskiedenis vervaag het.

Teen 7000 vC het die Chinese gierstjies geboer, wat tot die Jiahu -kultuur gelei het. By Damaidi in Ningxia is 3 172 kranssnywerke van 6 000-5 000 vC ontdek "met 8 453 individuele karakters soos die son, maan, sterre, gode en tonele van jag of weiding." Hierdie piktogramme is na bewering soortgelyk aan die vroegste karakters wat bevestig is dat dit Chinees geskryf is. Later is die Yangshao -kultuur omstreeks 2500 vC deur die Longshan -kultuur vervang. Argeologiese terreine soos Sanxingdui en Erlitou toon bewyse van 'n Bronstydperk beskawing in China. Die vroegste bronsmes is gevind in Majiayao in die provinsie Gansu en Qinhai, gedateer 3000 vC.

Die vroegste uitgebreide geskiedenis van China, die rekords van die groot geskiedskrywer wat deur die Chinese historiograaf Sima Qian in die 2de eeu vC geskryf is, en die Bamboo -annale spoor die Chinese geskiedenis uit ongeveer 2800 v.C. met 'n verslag van die drie Augustus en die vyf keisers. Hierdie heersers was semi-mitiese wyse-konings en morele voorbeelde. Tradisie beskou een van hulle, die Geel Keiser, as die voorvader van die Han -Chinese mense.

Sima Qian sê dat die stelsel van oorerflike heerskappy tydens die Xia-dinastie ingestel is, en dat hierdie model in die aangetekende Shang- en Zhou-dinastieë voortgesit is. Dit is gedurende hierdie tydperk van die Drie Dinastieë dat die historiese China na vore kom.

Antieke era

Die historikus Sima Qian (145 v.C.-90 v.C.) en die verslag van die Bamboo Annals dateer van die stigting van die Xia-dinastie tot 4 200 jaar gelede, maar hierdie datum is nie bevestig nie.

Daar was 17 konings van 14 geslagte tydens die Xia -dinastie van Yu die Grote tot Jie van Xia volgens Sima Qian en ander vroeëre rekords in die lente- en herfsperiode en strydende state.

Die Shang- en Zhou -mense bestaan ​​sedert die begin van Xia met die Xia -dinastie. Hulle was die lojale vasal van Xia. Die presiese tydsduur van die Xia -dinastie is nou moeilik om te definieer, maar fokus hoofsaaklik op twee opsies, 431 jaar of 471 jaar.

Die meeste argeoloë verbind die Xia nou met opgrawings by Erlitou in die sentrale Henan -provinsie, waar 'n brons smelter van ongeveer 2000 vC opgegrawe is. Daar word beweer dat vroeë tekens uit hierdie tydperk, gevind op aardewerk en skulpe, voorouers was van moderne Chinese karakters. Met min duidelike geskrewe rekords wat ooreenstem met die Shang -orakelbene of die geskrifte van die bronsvaartuig van Zhou, bly die Xia -era swak.

Die vroegste geskrewe rekord van China se verlede dateer uit die Shang -dinastie in die 13de eeu v.C. Argeologiese bevindings wat bewys lewer van die bestaan ​​van die Shang-dinastie, omstreeks 1600-1046 vC, is in twee stelle verdeel. Die eerste stel, uit die vroeëre Shang -tydperk (ongeveer 1600-1300 v.C.) kom uit bronne in Erligang, Zhengzhou en Shangcheng. Die tweede stel, uit die latere Shang- of Yin -periode, bestaan ​​uit 'n groot aantal orakelbeenskrifte. Anyang in die hedendaagse tyd is Henan bevestig as die laaste van die nege hoofstede van die Shang (ongeveer 1300-1046 v.C.). Die Shang -dinastie bevat 31 konings, van Tang van Shang tot koning Zhou van Shang, dit was die langste dinastie in die Chinese geskiedenis.

The Records of the Grand Historian sê dat die Shang -dinastie sy hoofstad ses keer verhuis het. Die laaste en belangrikste skuif na Yin in 1350 vC het gelei tot die goue era van die dinastie. Die term Yin -dinastie was in die geskiedenis sinoniem met die Shang -dinastie, hoewel dit die afgelope tyd spesifiek met verwysing na die laaste helfte van die Shang -dinastie gebruik is.

Chinese historici wat in latere tydperke gewoon het, was gewoond daaraan dat die een dinastie 'n ander opvolg, maar dit is bekend dat die werklike politieke situasie in die vroeë China baie ingewikkelder was. Soos sommige geleerdes van China voorstel, kan die Xia en die Shang dus moontlik verwys na politieke entiteite wat gelyktydig bestaan ​​het, net soos bekend is dat die vroeë Zhou (opvolgerstaat van die Shang) op dieselfde tyd as die Shang bestaan ​​het.

Geskrewe rekords wat by Anyang gevind is, bevestig die bestaan ​​van die Shang -dinastie. Westerse geleerdes huiwer egter dikwels om nedersettings wat gelyktydig is met die Anyang -nedersetting met die Shang -dinastie te assosieer. Argeologiese bevindings by Sanxingdui dui byvoorbeeld op 'n tegnologies gevorderde beskawing wat kultureel anders is as Anyang. Die bewyse is onomwonde om te bewys hoe ver die Shang -koninkryk van Anyang gestrek het. Die leidende hipotese is dat Anyang, wat deur dieselfde Shang in die amptelike geskiedenis geregeer is, saam met talle ander kultureel uiteenlopende nedersettings in die gebied bestaan ​​waarna dit nou as China proper genoem word.

Teen die einde van die 2de millennium v.C. het die Zhou -dinastie in die Yellow River -vallei begin opduik en die Shang oorval. Dit lyk asof die Zhou hul bewind onder 'n semi-feodale stelsel begin het. Die Zhou was 'n volk wat wes van Shang woon, en die Zhou -leier is deur die Shang as 'Westelike Beskermer' aangestel. Die heerser van die Zhou, koning Wu, het met die hulp van sy oom, die hertog van Zhou, as regent daarin geslaag om die Shang in die Slag van Muye te verslaan. Die koning van Zhou beroep hom op hierdie tydstip op die konsep van die mandaat van die hemel om sy heerskappy te legitimeer, 'n konsep wat bykans elke opeenvolgende dinastie invloedryk sou wees. Die Zhou het hul hoofstad aanvanklik wes verhuis na 'n gebied naby die moderne Xi'an, naby die Geelrivier, maar hulle sou 'n reeks uitbreidings in die Yangtze -riviervallei voorsit. Dit sou die eerste van baie bevolkingsmigrasies van noord na suid in die Chinese geskiedenis wees.

Na verdere politieke konsolidasie het sewe prominente state aan die einde van die 5de eeu vC oorgebly, en die jare waarin hierdie paar state met mekaar geveg het, staan ​​bekend as die periode van strydende state. Alhoewel daar 'n nominale Zhou -koning tot 256 vC gebly het, was hy grotendeels 'n boegbeeld en het hy min werklike mag. As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning, were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture. This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn Period and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng & Xian (province and county). The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng, the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in 214 BC enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi.

Imperial Era


First Emperor - Qin Shi Huang Di

Historians often refer to the period from Qin Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty as Imperial China. Though the unified reign of the Qin Emperor lasted only twelve years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyan (in modern Xi'an).

The doctrine of legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy of Legalism, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peace time. The Qin presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning and burying of scholars. This would be the impetus behind the later Han Synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance.

The Qin Dynasty is well known for beginning the Great Wall of China, which was later augmented and enhanced during the Ming Dynasty. The other major contributions of the Qin included the concept of centralized government, the unification of the legal code, written language, measurement, and currency of China after the tribulations of the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods. Even something as basic as the length of axles for carts had to be made uniform to ensure a viable trading system throughout the empire.


Chinese tombs may surpass Egyptian wonders Cosmos - March 21, 2007
The tomb of China's first emperor is potentially one of the most spectacular on Earth, but a heated debate is developing over whether to excavate it at all.


Founder of the Han Dynasty

The Han Dynasty emerged in 206 BC. It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China. Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences. Emperor Wu Han Wudi consolidated and extended the Chinese empire by pushing back the Xiongnu (sometimes identified with the Huns) into the steppes of modern Inner Mongolia, wresting from them the modern areas of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai. This enabled the first opening of trading connections between China and the West, the Silk Road.

Nevertheless, land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base. In AD 9, the usurper Wang Mang founded the short-lived Xin ("New") Dynasty and started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms. These programs, however, were never supported by the land-holding families, for they favored the peasant and lesser gentry, and the instability they produced brought on chaos and uprisings.

Emperor Guangwu reinstated the Han Dynasty with the support of land-holding and merchant families at Luoyang, east of Xi'an. This new era would be termed the Eastern Han Dynasty. Han power declined again amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs.

The Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out in 184, ushering in an era of warlords. In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms. This time period has been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Though the three kingdoms were reunited temporarily in 278 by the Jin Dynasty, the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu) ethnic groups controlled much of the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Chang Jiang. In 303 the Di people rebelled and later captured Chengdu, establishing the state of Cheng Han. Under Liu Yuan the Xiongnu rebelled near today's Linfen County and established the state of Han Zhao.

His successor Liu Cong captured and executed the last two Western Jin emperors. Sixteen kingdoms were a plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that came to rule the whole or parts of northern China in the 4th and 5th centuries. Many ethnic groups were involved--including ancestors of the Turks, Mongolians, and Tibetans. Most of these nomadic peoples had to some extent been "Sinicized" long before their ascent to power. In fact, some of them, notably the Ch'iang and the Xiong-nu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times.

Signaled by the collapse of East Jin Dynasty in 420, China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The Han people managed to survive the military attacks from the nomadic tribes of the north, such as the Xian Bei, and their civilization continued to thrive.

An increasing number of nomadic people in Northern China adopted Confucianism as personal life guidance and state ideology while becoming gradually assimilated into the Han Chinese civilization. During this rivalry between Northern and Southern China, Buddhism propagated throughout China for the first time, despite facing opposition from Taoist followers. Tuo Ba Tao a faithful Taoist believer and emperor of the Northern Wei Dynasty (one of the Northern Dynasties), issued orders to eliminate Buddhism from the country.

In Southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed to exist were held frequently by the royal court and nobles. Finally, near the end of the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, both Buddhist and Taoist followers compromised and became more tolerant of each other.

In 589, Sui annexed the last Southern Dynasty, Chen, through military force, and put an end to the era of Southern and Northern Dynasties.


Founder of the Sui Dynasty

The Sui Dynasty, which managed to reunite the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation, played a role more important than its length of existence would suggest. In the same way that the Qin rulers of the third century BC had unified China after the Warring States Period, so the Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors, the Tang. Like the Qin, however, the Sui overused their resources and collapsed. Also similar to the Qin, traditional history has judged the Sui somewhat unfairly it has stressed the harshness of the Sui regime and the megalomania of its second emperor, giving little credit for the Dynasty's many positive achievements.


Founder of the Tang Dynasty

On June 18, 618, Gaozu took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty was established, opening a new age of prosperity and innovations in arts and technology. Buddhism, which had gradually been established in China from the first century, became the predominant religion and was adopted by the royal family and many of the common people.

Chang'an (modern Xi'an), the national capital, is thought to have been the world's biggest city at the time. The Tang and the Han are often referred to as the most prosperous periods of Chinese history.

The Tang, like the Han, kept the trade routes open to the west and south and there was extensive trade with distant foreign countries and many foreign merchants settled in China.

The Tang introduced a new system into the Chinese government, called the "Equal Field" System. This system gave families land grants from the Emperor based on their needs, not their wealth.

From about 860 the Tang Dynasty began to decline due to a series of rebellions within China itself, and in the previously subject Kingdom of Nanzhao to the south. One of the warlords, Huang Chao, captured Guangzhou in 879, killing most of the 200,000 inhabitants including most of the large colony of foreign merchant families there. In late 880 Luoyang surrendered to him and on 5 January, 881 he conquered Chang'an. The emperor Xizong fled to Chengdu and Huang established a new temporary regime, which was eventually destroyed by Tang forces. but another time of political chaos followed.

The period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, lasted little more than half a century, from 907 to 960. During this brief era, when China was in all respects a multistate system, five regimes succeeded one another rapidly in control of the old Imperial heartland in northern China. During this same time, 10 more stable regimes occupied sections of southern and western China, so the period is also referred to as that of the Ten Kingdoms.


Founder of the Song Dynasty

In 960, the Song Dynasty (960-1279) gained power over most of China and established its capital in Kaifeng, starting a period of economic prosperity, while the Khitan Liao Dynasty ruled over Manchuria and eastern Mongolia.

In 1115 the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) emerged to prominence, annihilating the Liao Dynasty in 10 years. Meanwhile, in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty from 1032 up to 1227, established by Tangut tribes.

It also took power over northern China and Kaifeng from the Song Dynasty, which moved its capital to Hangzhou. The Southern Song Dynasty also suffered the humiliation of having to acknowledge the Jin Dynasty as formal overlords. In the ensuing years China was divided between the Song Dynasty, the Jin Dynasty and the Tangut Western Xia. Southern Song experienced a period of great technological development which can be explained in part by the military pressure that it felt from the north. This included the use of gunpowder weapons, which played a large role in the Song Dynasty naval victories against the Jin in the Battle of Tangdao and Battle of Caishi on the Yangtze River in 1161 AD. Furthermore, China's first permanent standing navy was assembled and provided an admiral's office at Dinghai in 1132 AD, under the reign of Emperor Renzong of Song.

The Song Dynasty is considered by many to be classical China's high point in science and technology, with innovative figures such as Su Song (1020-1101 AD) and Shen Kuo (1031-1095 AD). There was court intrigue with the political rivals of the Reformers and Conservatives, led by the chancellors Wang Anshi and Sima Guang, respectively. By the mid to late 13th century the Chinese had adopted the dogma of Neo-Confucian philosophy formulated by Zhu Xi. There were enormous literary works compiled during the Song Dynasty, such as the historical work of the Zizhi Tongjian. Culture and the arts flourished, with grandiose artworks such as Along the River During Qingming Festival and Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, while there were great Buddhist painters such as Lin Tinggui.

Founder of the Ming Dynasty

Throughout a short-lived Yuan Dynasty, there was strong sentiment, among the populace, against the rule of the foreigners, which finally led to peasant revolts. The Mongolians were pushed back to the steppes and replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368.

Urbanization increased as the population grew and as the division of labor grew more complex. Large urban centers, such as Nanjing and Beijing, also contributed to the growth of private industry. In particular, small-scale industries grew up, often specializing in paper, silk, cotton, and porcelain goods. For the most part, however, relatively small urban centers with markets proliferated around the country. Town markets mainly traded food, with some necessary manufactures such as pins or oil.

Despite the xenophobia and intellectual introspection characteristic of the increasingly popular new school of neo-Confucianism, China under the early Ming Dynasty was not isolated. Foreign trade and other contacts with the outside world, particularly Japan, increased considerably. Chinese merchants explored all of the Indian Ocean, reaching East Africa with the voyages of Zheng He, original name Ma Sanbao.

Zhu Yuanzhang or (Hong-wu,), the founder of the dynasty, laid the foundations for a state interested less in commerce and more in extracting revenues from the agricultural sector. Perhaps because of the Emperor's background as a peasant, the Ming economic system emphasized agriculture, unlike that of the Song and the Mongolian Dynasties, which relied on traders and merchants for revenue. Neo-feudal landholdings of the Song and Mongol periods were expropriated by the Ming rulers. Great landed estates were confiscated by the government, fragmented, and rented out. Private slavery was forbidden. Consequently, after the death of Emperor Yong-le, independent peasant landholders predominated in Chinese agriculture. These laws might have paved the way to removing the worst of the poverty during the previous regimes. The laws against the merchants and the restrictions under which the craftsmen worked remained essentially as they had been under the Song, but now the remnants of the older foreign merchant class also fell under these new Ming laws. Their influence quickly dwindled.

The dynasty had a strong and complex central government that unified and controlled the empire. The emperor's role became more autocratic, although Zhu Yuanzhang necessarily continued to use what he called the "Grand Secretaries" to assist with the immense paperwork of the bureaucracy, including memorials (petitions and recommendations to the throne), imperial edicts in reply, reports of various kinds, and tax records. It was this same bureaucracy that later prevented the Ming government from being able to adapt to changes in society, and eventually led to its decline.

Emperor Yong-le strenuously tried to extend China's influence beyond its borders by demanding other rulers send ambassadors to China to present tribute. A large navy was built, including four-masted ships displacing 1,500 tons. A standing army of 1 million troops (some estimate as many as 1.9 million) was created. The Chinese armies conquered Annam while the Chinese fleet sailed the China seas and the Indian Ocean, cruising as far as the east coast of Africa. The Chinese gained influence in Eastern Turkestan.

Several maritime Asian nations sent envoys with tribute for the Chinese emperor. Domestically, the Grand Canal was expanded, and proved to be a stimulus to domestic trade. Over 100,000 tons of iron per year were produced. Many books were printed using movable type. The imperial palace in Beijing's Forbidden City reached its current splendor. The Ming period seems to have been one of China's most prosperous. It was also during these centuries that the potential of south China came to be fully exploited. New crops were widely cultivated and industries such as those producing porcelain and textiles flourished. However, it was also during this period that China fell substantially behind Europe in technological and military power, an event known as the "Great Divergence."

During the Ming dynasty the last construction on the Great Wall was undertaken to protect China from foreign invasions. While the Great Wall had been built in earlier times, most of what is seen today was either built or repaired by the Ming. The brick and granite work was enlarged, the watch towers were redesigned, and cannons were placed along its length.


Opulent Clothing Unearthed in Ming Dynasty Tomb Live Science - December 8, 2014
Archaeologists in China have unearthed a husband-and-wife tomb dating to the Ming Dynasty that contains extraordinarily well-preserved clothing decorated with elaborate designs. The 500-year-old tomb contained a wooden coffin for the husband and another for his wife. The two coffins lay side by side within an outer coffin, which in turn was covered by a layer of slurry (a mix of lime and sticky rice soup). Although archaeologists found only a few bones in the coffins, the clothing was finely preserved. The woman's coffin had a banner saying that she was "Lady Xu, deceased mother of the Wang family of the Ming Dynasty." Her coffin contains an undershirt with patches that show a detailed image of a Kylin, a mythical creature with the head of a dragon, a scaly body and bushy tale. The Kylin is shown amidst clouds, rocks and sea water.

The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) was founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last Han Chinese dynasty, by the Manchus. The Manchus were formerly known as the Jurchen and invaded from the north in the late seventeenth century. An estimated 25 million people died during the Manchu conquest of Ming Dynasty (1616-1644). Even though the Manchus started out as alien conquerors, they quickly adopted the Confucian norms of traditional Chinese government. They eventually ruled in the manner of traditional native dynasties.

The Manchus enforced a 'queue order' forcing the Han Chinese to adopt the Manchu queue and Manchu-style clothing. The Manchus had a special hair style: the "queue". They cut hair off the front of their heads and made the remaining hair into a long pigtail. The traditional Chinese clothing, or Hanfu was also replaced by Manchu-style clothing. Qipao (bannermen dress and Tangzhuang), usually regarded as traditional Chinese clothing nowadays, are actually Manchu-style clothing. The penalty for not complying was death.

Emperor Kangxi ordered the creation of the most complete dictionary of Chinese characters ever put together at the time. Under Emperor Qianlong, the compilation of a catalogue of the important works on Chinese culture was made.

The Manchus set up the "Eight Banners" system in an attempt to avoid being assimilated into Chinese society. The "Eight Banners" were military institutions, set up to provide a structure with which the Manchu "bannermen" were meant to identify. Banner membership was to be based on traditional Manchu skills such as archery, horsemanship, and frugality. In addition, they were encouraged to use the Manchu language, rather than Chinese. Bannermen were given economic and legal privileges in Chinese cities.

Over the next half-century, the Manchus consolidated control of some areas originally under the Ming, including Yunnan. They also stretched their sphere of influence over Xinjiang, Tibet and Mongolia.

During the nineteenth century, Qing control weakened. China suffered massive social strife, economic stagnation, and increased Western involvement including the destructive trade in opium and the new influence of missionary work. Britain's desire to continue its opium trade with China collided with imperial edicts prohibiting the addictive drug, and the First Opium War erupted in 1840. Britain and other Western powers, including the United States, France, Russia, and Germany thereupon forcibly occupied "concessions" and gained special commercial privileges. Hong Kong was ceded to Britain in 1842 under the Treaty of Nanjing . The Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864) was the largest civil war in China.

In addition, more costly rebellions in terms of human lives and economics followed the Taiping Rebellion such as the Punti-Hakka Clan Wars, Nien Rebellion, Muslim Rebellion, Panthay Rebellion and the Boxer Rebellion. In many ways, the rebellions and the treaties the Qing were forced to sign with the imperialist powers are symptomatic of the inability of the Chinese government to respond adequately to the challenging conditions facing China in the nineteenth century.

Modern Era

The two Opium wars and the opium trade were costly outcomes for the Qing dynasty and the Chinese people. The Qing imperial treasury was declared bankrupt twice arising from indemnities incurred in the Opium wars and the large outflow of silver due to the opium trade (in tens of billions of ounces). China suffered two extreme famines exactly twenty years after each opium war in the 1860s and 1880s, and the Qing imperial dynasty was ineffective in helping the population. Socially these events had a profound impact as it challenged the hegemony that the Chinese had enjoyed in Asia for centuries. As a result, the country was in a state of turmoil.

A large rebellion, the Taiping Rebellion, involved around a third of China falling under control of the Taiping Tianguo, a quasi-Christian religious movement led by the "Heavenly King" Hong Xiuquan. Only after fourteen years were the Taipings finally crushed - the Taiping army was destroyed in the Third Battle of Nanking in 1864. In total between twenty million and fifty million lives were lost, making it the second deadliest war in human history.

The Qing officials were slow to adopt modernity and suspicious of social and technological advances that they viewed as a threat to their absolute control over China. Therefore, the dynasty was ill-equipped to handle the Western encroachment. Western powers did intervene militarily to quell domestic chaos, such as the Taiping Rebellion and the anti-imperialist Boxer Rebellion. General Gordon, later killed in the siege of Khartoum, Sudan, was often credited with having involved to help the Qing dynasty to defeat the Taiping insurrection.

By the 1860s, the Qing Dynasty had put down the rebellions at enormous cost and loss of life. This undermined the credibility of the Qing regime and, spearheaded by local initiatives by provincial leaders and gentry, contributed to the rise of warlordism in China.

The Qing Dynasty under the Emperor Guangxu proceeded to deal with the problem of modernization through the Self-Strengthening Movemen.

However, between 1898 and 1908 the Empress Dowager Cixi had the reformist Guangxu imprisoned for being 'mentally disabled'. The Empress Dowager with the help of conservatives, initiated a military coup, effectively removed the young Emperor from power, and overturned most of the more radical reforms. He died one day before the death of the Empress Dowager (some believe Guangxu was poisoned by Cixi). Official corruption, cynicism, and imperial family quarrels made most of the military reforms useless. As a result, the Qing's "New Armies" were soundly defeated in the Sino-French War (1883-1885) and the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895).

At the start of the 20th century, the Boxer Rebellion threatened northern China. This was a conservative anti-imperialist movement that sought to return China to old ways. The Empress Dowager, probably seeking to ensure her continued grip on power, sided with the Boxers when they advanced on Beijing. In response the Eight-Nation Alliance invaded China. Consisting of British, Japanese, Russian, Italian, German, French, US and Austrian troops, the alliance defeated the Boxers and demanded further concessions from the Qing government.

Frustrated by the Qing court's resistance to reform and by China's weakness, young officials, military officers, and students - inspired by the revolutionary ideas of Sun Yat-sen - began to advocate the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and creation of a republic. A revolutionary military uprising, the Wuchang Uprising, began on October 10, 1911 in Wuhan.

The provisional government of the Republic of China was formed in Nanjing on March 12, 1912 with Sun Yat-sen as President, but Sun was forced to turn power over to Yuan Shikai, who commanded the New Army and was Prime Minister under the Qing government, as part of the agreement to let the last Qing monarch abdicate (a decision he would later regret). Yuan Shikai proceeded in the next few years to abolish the national and provincial assemblies and declared himself emperor in 1915. Yuan's imperial ambitions were fiercely opposed by his subordinates, and faced with the prospect of rebellion, Yuan abdicated and died shortly afterwards in 1916, leaving a power vacuum in China. His death left the republican government all but shattered, ushering in the era of the "warlords" when China was ruled by shifting coalitions of competing provincial military leaders.

A little noticed event (to the rest of the world) in 1919 would have long-term repercussions for the rest of Chinese history in the 20th century. This was the May Fourth Movement. This movement began as a response to the insult imposed on China by the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I but became a protest movement about the domestic situation in China. The discrediting of liberal Western philosophy amongst Chinese intellectuals was followed by the adoption of more radical lines of thought. This in turn planted the seeds for the irreconcilable conflict between the left and right in China that would dominate Chinese history for the rest of the century.

In the 1920s, Sun Yat-Sen established a revolutionary base in south China, and set out to unite the fragmented nation. With Soviet assistance, he entered into an alliance with the fledgling Communist Party of China. After Sun's death from cancer in 1925, one of his prot g s, Chiang Kai-shek , seized control of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party or KMT,) and succeeded in bringing most of south and central China under its rule in a military campaign known as the Northern Expedition. Having defeated the warlords in south and central China by military force, Chiang was able to secure the nominal allegiance of the warlords in the North.

In 1927, Chiang turned on the CPC and relentlessly chased the CPC armies and its leaders from their bases in southern and eastern China. In 1934, driven from their mountain bases such as the Chinese Soviet Republic, the CPC forces embarked on the Long March across China's most desolate terrain to the northwest, where they established a guerrilla base at Yan'an in Shanxi Province.

During the Long March, the communists reorganized under a new leader, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung). The bitter struggle between the KMT and the CPC continued, openly or clandestinely, through the 14-year long Japanese invasion (1931-1945), even though the two parties nominally formed a united front to oppose the Japanese invaders in 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) portion of World War II. The war between the two parties resumed following the Japanese defeat in 1945. By 1949, the CPC occupied most of the country.

Chiang Kai-shek fled with the remnants of his government to Taiwan in 1949 and his Nationalist Party would control the island as well as a few neighboring islands until democratic elections in the early 1990s. Since then, the political status of Taiwan has always been under dispute.

With the proclamation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) on October 1, 1949, China was divided once again according to the claims of that government. However, the actual political and legal status of Taiwan is disputed. Since the 1990s, the Republic of China government that governs Taiwan along with associated islands as well as some small islands off the coast of Fujian has been pushing to gain international recognition, while the People's Republic of China vehemently opposes foreign involvement, and insists that foreign relations not deviate from the One-China policy.


Epi-Olmec script

One of the most important Olmec finds was the discovery of an inscribed slab found under the waters of the Acula River near the village of La Mojarra in 1986 in the Mexican state of Veracruz. Dubbed Stela 1 of La Mojarra, this monument was inscribed with 465 glyphs arranged in 21 columns, and the image of a ruler. The writing on it is nothing like any other writing system in Mesoamerica, such as Maya, Zapotec, Mixtec, or Aztec, although like the Maya it also used the Long Count.

However, Stela 1 of La Mojarra is not the only example of its writing system. Most of the monuments that bear glyphs in the same (or similar) writing system are also found near the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, the thin stretch of land that separates the majority of Mexico from its south-eastern states and from Central America, although none has texts as long as the Stela. The famous Tuxtla Statuette, a hand-length nephrite figurine of an almost comedic man dressed in a duck's outfit, bears a Long Count date of 162 CE as well as non-calendric glyphs. Other famous inscriptions include Stela C of Tres Zapotes, with a Long Count date of 32 BCE, and Stela 1 of Chiapa de Corzo (located in Chiapas, Mexico), with an incomplete date conjectured to be 36 BCE. In the site of Cerro de las Mesas, Veracruz, highly erroded monuments also bear Long Count dates, but from the early Classic period at around 450 CE, as well as a large stone version of the Tuxtla Statuette devoid of any text.

Scholars have given this script many names, epi-Olmec was chosen since it is more common in scientific literature. Some have called this script the "La Mojarra script" after the location where the Stela was found. Another name, also based on a geographical name, is the "Isthmian Script", named after the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. You would find all three names used in publications, and websites. Yet another name is the "Tuxtla Script", named after the Tuxtla Statuette as well as the Tuxtla Mountains near which many of the texts have been found.

Left side image of La Mojarra Stela 1, showing a person identified as "Harvester Mountain Lord". Inscriptions in the Isthmian or Epi-Olmec script on the right side of La Mojarra Stela 1

The Epi-Olmec script turned out to be structurally similar to the Maya. It is logophonetic, meaning that one set of the signs, the phonograms, have phonetic values, while the other glyphs, called logograms, represents morpheme. A morpheme is a word or part of a word that cannot be broken further into smaller units with relevant meaning. For instance, the English word beautiful can be broken down into beauty and -ful, neither of which can be broken down further. Beauty is a morpheme because it is a word. Furthermore, -ful carries the meaning of "a lot of", and can also be used with other words, like bountiful, faithful, and others. Hence it is not a unique derivation of beauty, but a morpheme in its own right.

In a logophonetic system, both logograms and phonograms are used. Frequently logograms make up the root of a word whereas phonograms spell out the prefixes and suffixes that modify the root.

The vowel u ("u" with a line through the middle) is a strange vowel. It is a central high vowel, meaning that it's like the common vowel [i] but the position of the peak of the tongue is halfway between the throat and the teeth. You can check out Phonetics for details on how to pronounce it.

All phonograms in the Epi-Olmec script represent syllables. So we call the set of phonograms the syllabary:

The Epi-Olmec culture was a cultural area in the central region of the present-day Mexican state of Veracruz, concentrated in the Papaloapan River basin, a culture that existed during the Late Formative period, from roughly 300 BCE to roughly 250 CE. Epi-Olmec was a successor culture to the Olmec, hence the prefix "epi-" or "post-". Although Epi-Olmec did not attain the far-reaching achievements of that earlier culture, it did realize, with its sophisticated calendrics and writing system, a level of cultural complexity unknown to the Olmecs.


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