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Harding Travels

Harding Travels


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BTR se geskiedenis

Harding het later na Stanford oorgeplaas, waar hy aan boks deelgeneem het en by die geweerspan aangesluit het.

Hy was 'n lid van die Amerikaanse Olimpiese Rifle Team in die somerspele van 1932 in Los Angeles. Hy het die hoogste telling op die Amerikaanse span behaal en 'n bronsmedalje gewen. Na die gradeplegtigheid het Bill Harding by die Army Air Corps aangesluit en sy droom nagestreef om vlieënier te word. Hy het die Boeing P-12B-tweevliegtuig gevlieg. Sy kundige vaardigheid in kombinasie met sy vliegvaardighede het gelei tot sy droomopdrag as 'n jaagtogvlieënier. Hy het later die beroemde P-6E Hawk Fighter-vliegtuig gevlieg, die mees gevorderde twee-vliegtuig van die Air Corps. Open cockpit-vegters was die grootste deel van die Amerikaanse jaagvliegtuie in die middel van die dertigerjare en tot die begin van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Kort nadat Harding 'n eskaderleier geword het, het die 1st Pursuit-groep die nuwe, nuutste PB-2A ontvang. Die PB-2A het 'n G.E. turbo -aanjaer -enjin en ingesluit "eerstes" soos aluminium vel, intrekbare landingsrat en 'n ingeslote kajuit wat sy vlieënier en agterwaartse kanon dek.

William Harding het 'n vlug van ses PB-2A's gelei tydens maneuvers om duikbom- en grondaanvaltegnieke op Selfridge Field in Michigan te oefen toe die enjin onklaar geraak en aan die brand geslaan het. Harding se werktuigkundige, Pvt. Frank Miller, het gevra om saam met hom op te gaan. Nadat hy die neus van die vliegtuig laat sak het om lugspoed te kry en 'n stalletjie te vermy, kyk Harding terug om te ontdek dat Miller bewusteloos was van die G -kragte van die laaste duikuitstappie. Met die verspreide vuur wat die voorwaartse sig verduister en die vegter hoogte verloor, sou hulle moes red. Nadat hy die afdak op 1500 voet teruggeskuif het, kon Harding uiteindelik sy vriend wakker maak en saam met homself uitkom. Die PB-2A het egter meer hoogte verloor en was te laag vir enige van die valskerms om oop te maak. William Harding het sy enigste kans op oorlewing opgeoffer deur by die brandende vliegtuig te bly en sy vriend te probeer red.

Harding Field was vier jaar lank 'n opleidingsbasis vir vegvlieëniers wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog met die nuutste vliegtuie en bomwerpers vlieg.

Die lugbasis was 'n tydelike tuiste vir duisende mans en vroue van regoor die land. 'N Aantal van die vlieëniers wat hul opleiding hier ontvang het, het geskiedenis gemaak in die lugvaartbedryf. Hele eenhede is opgelei en oorsee gestuur, insluitend kwartiermeesters, sowel as vegter- en bomwerper -eskader. Mans van Harding Field was in elke teater van die oorlog en onderskei hulle met die hoogste eer. Vir vroue was die basis inderdaad 'n 'kwotraining' -terrein en 'n toetrede tot die arbeidsmag van die industrie wat as amptenare en as burgerlike werknemers dien.

Die stad Baton Rouge was reeds vooruitstrewend uit die nywerheid, maar die oorlog het die ontwikkeling versnel en miljoene dollars in die plaaslike ekonomie gestort. Die nuwe basis was 'n ekonomiese bonanza vir die stad. Basisbedrywighede het staatgemaak op noodsaaklike voorrade wat by ondernemings buite die basis gekoop is. Die maandelikse loon van personeel wat by die basis gestasioneer was, beloop ongeveer $ 50,000. Dit het nie die baie burgerlike personeel ingesluit wat by die basiskantore, hospitale, pakhuise, werktuigkundiges en timmermanne werksaam was nie.

In Augustus 1948, ingevolge die Amerikaanse surpluswet van 1944, vir die vervreemding van owerheidslughawens, lughawefasiliteite en toerusting, en om hul beskikking te verseker op 'n manier wat die ontwikkeling van burgerlugvaart die beste bevorder en bevorder ter verdediging, 'n sterk, doeltreffende en behoorlik onderhoude landwye stelsel van openbare lughawens, het Harding Field 'n openbare lughawe geword vir burgerlike gebruik in die Metropolitaanse gebied Baton Rouge.

In 1969,

As deel van Wet nr. 151,

Vandag bedien die Baton Rouge Metropolitan Airport 'n MSA van meer as 830,000 mense en 'n totale opvanggebied van ongeveer 1,7 miljoen in die suide van Louisiana en in die suidweste van Mississippi. Gereelde vlugte van American, Delta en United na sommige van hul grootste lughawens bied enkelverbindingsdiens na bestemmings wêreldwyd.


Wat jy sal vind

Perdeoorsteektekens is 'n algemene plek in Harding Township, wat meer as 20 vierkante kilometer beslaan. Baie eiendomme bevat permanente versierings vir die openbare perdepaadjie wat deur 'n groot deel van die township loop.

Die meeste huise is groot en het 'n oppervlakte van meer as drie hektaar, alhoewel daar twee meenthuise ontwikkel is - Shadowbrook en Harding Green - langs Roete 202. In die Mount Kemble Lake -gemeenskap, 96 bungalows en kothuise, sommige dateer uit die 1920's, sit op die oewer van die meer.

Daar was die afgelope paar jaar min nuwe konstruksie in Harding, waarvan die nuutste 20 groot huise op Hartley Farms is, elk op 'n oppervlakte van drie hektaar omring deur oop ruimte, as deel van 'n 25-jarige plan om 'n gedeelte van 'n 171- landgoed wat eens deur die familie Dodge besit is.

Baie van Harding se huise het hul eie septiese stelsels en putte. Die minimale openbare waterdiens, saam met openbare dienste deur vrywilligers en die afwesigheid van 'n hoërskool, help om die eiendomsbelasting aansienlik laer te hou as in die omliggende gebiede.

Omdat die poskantore wat die gemeente bedien, in naburige dorpe of in New Vernon is - 'n wenslike, nie -geïnkorporeerde gemeenskap in die middel van Harding, wat feitlik almal as posadres kan gebruik deur 'n posbus te huur - ontvang feitlik niemand pos wat aan Harding Township.

'Die meeste mense wat in die stad woon, het 'n posbus,' sê Gerry-Jo Cranmer, 'n agent by Turpin Realtors. 'Dit gee hulle 'n goeie verskoning om by te kom kuier en te gesels.'


Harding Travels - Geskiedenis

Warren G. Harding, die 29ste president van die Verenigde State, het in 1890 hierdie aansienlike raamhuis in Marion, Ohio, gebou en dit sy permanente tuiste gemaak tot sy verkiesing as president in 1920. Hierdie jare het sy opkoms uit die klein koerant deur sy ses jaar diens in die Amerikaanse senaat. Harding het in 1920 'n oorweldigende oorwinning behaal op grond van 'n vae belofte om Amerika terug te keer na die spanning na die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en die daaropvolgende depressie. 'N Konserwatiewe Republikein, gewoonlik tevrede om die advies van partyleiers te volg, het Harding maatreëls getref wat die ekonomiese beheer van die oorlog beëindig, belasting verlaag, hoë beskermende tariewe ingestel het en streng immigrasie beperk het. In buitelandse sake werk hy saam met sy bekwame staatsekretaris om 'n internasionale ooreenkoms te verkry om vlootbewapening te beperk. Harding, 'n aantreklike en liefdevolle man wat altyd getrou was aan sy vriende, het 'n hoë prys betaal toe sommige van sy aanstellings korrup was, maar hy sterf in Augustus 1923 aan 'n hartaanval, voordat die volle omvang van die skandale uitgebreek het.

Warren G. Harding, gebore in 1865 op 'n plaas naby Corsica, 'n klein dorpie in die noorde van Ohio, was die oudste van agt kinders. Hy studeer in 1882 aan die Ohio Central College, werk met vreemde poste om homself te onderhou en redigeer die skoolkoerant. Harding verhuis in 1882 na Marion, wat sy huis vir die res van sy lewe sou wees. Na kort tydperke as onderwyser, regstudent en versekeringsverkoper, het hy as verslaggewer by 'n weekblad begin werk. In 1884 het hy en twee vennote vir $ 300 gekoop Marion Star, 'n mislukte weekblad van vier bladsye. Harding het sy medewerkers gekoop, die koerant in 'n dagblad verander en 'n suksesvolle uitgewer en prominente burger geword.

Harding styg geleidelik in die State Republican Party en trek die aandag van die Ohio-politikus-lobbyis Harry M. Daugherty. Hy het vier jaar in die staats senaat gedien. Van 1904 tot 1906 was hy luitenant -goewerneur, maar het verlore gegaan toe hy in 1910 vir goewerneur uitgedaag het. In 1914 verkies tot die Senaat van die Verenigde State, dien hy daar tot 1921. Toe die belangrikste aanspraakmakers op die 1920 Republikeinse presidensiële nominasie vasgevang was, het partyleiers gekies Harding as die kompromiekandidaat. Tydens die veldtog, wat Daugherty bestuur het, het Harding met duisende mense gepraat vanaf die wye koloniale herlewingstoep van sy huis. Hy was bekend as 'n redenaar, met 'n kragtige, ekspressiewe stem. Soveel mense het na hom geluister dat die gesin die voorste grasperk met gruis moes vervang.

Harding het aangekondig dat wat Amerika wil hê, heroïese is, maar genesing nie neusgate nie, maar normaliteit nie agitasie nie, maar aanpassing nie onderdompeling in internasionaliteit nie, maar volhoubaarheid in triomfantlike nasionaliteit. van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en die naoorlogse depressie. In November het Harding en hardloopmaat Calvin Coolidge die demokraat James M. Cox oorweldig met meer as 60 persent van die stemme. Destyds was dit die grootste meerderheid wat enige presidentskandidaat ooit gekry het.

Harding & rsquos se posisie in die Volkebond was tydens die veldtog dubbelsinnig, maar hy het sy verkiesing as 'n mandaat teen die Amerikaanse lidmaatskap aanvaar. Hy het afsonderlike vredesverdragte met Duitsland, Oostenryk en Hongarye onderteken en die Eerste Wêreldoorlog formeel beëindig. President Harding was gasheer vir die Washington Naval Conference van 1921-22. Vyf van die groot moondhede wat teenwoordig was, en die Verenigde State, Groot -Brittanje, Japan, Italië en Frankryk het ooreengekom om vlootbewapening te beperk. Die konferensie het ook bestaande territoriale aansprake in die Stille Oseaan geïnternasionaliseer, China se territoriale integriteit en onafhanklikheid gewaarborg, en die handelsbeleid "Open Door" bevestig. Harding het ook internasionale ooreenkoms bereik om gasoorlogvoering te verbied.

Harding was gewild vir sy buitelandse beleid en vir sy sukses met die herstel van welvaart, maar teen 1923 het hy toenemende probleme ondervind. Hy verloor die effektiewe beheer oor die kongres tydens die middeltermynverkiesings van 1922. Belangriker nog, aanhoudende gerugte van korrupsie in sy administrasie het begin versprei. Hulle fokus op die Veterane's Bureau, die Office of Alien Property Custodian (beide onder sy vriend, Prokureur -generaal Daugherty) en die Departement van Binnelandse Sake. Uiteindelik is die sekretaris van binnelandse sake, Albert B. Fall, tronk toe gestuur vir die aanvaarding van omkoopgeld in ruil vir die verhuring van mariene olie -reserwes op openbare grond by Teapot Dome, Wyoming (berug as die Teapot Dome Scandal) en Elk Hills, Kalifornië, aan private belange. Fall was die eerste kabinetslid wat ooit tronk toe gegaan het.

Gelukkig vir Harding het dit eers in 1931 gebeur. Nadat hy geleer het van korrupsie in sy administrasie voor sy dood, het hy nie geleef om die volle omvang van die skandale openbare kennis te word nie. Terug op 'n reis na Alaska, sterf Harding op 2 Augustus 1923 aan 'n hartaanval in San Francisco.

Die weduwee van Harding en rsquos het teruggetrek na Marion, maar het nooit weer in hul huis gewoon nie. Sy het haar man net 'n bietjie meer as 'n jaar oorleef. Sy het die huis en die meubels daarvan aan die Harding Memorial Association gestuur, wat later 'n paar kamers vir die publiek oopgemaak het. Die stigting het die terrein in 1978 aan die staat Ohio geskenk, en die Ohio Historical Society bestuur dit namens die staat. Baie meubels en besittings van Harding word in die huis uitgestal. Die klein, wit paneelgebou agter die huis wat tydens die veldtog van 1920 as pershoofkwartier gedien het, is nou 'n museum wat toegewy is aan die lewens van president en mev. Harding. Langs die persgebou sit 'n draagbare blikstemhok, wat tydens die 1920 -verkiesing gebruik is om die opkoms van die kiesers aan te moedig.

Die Warren G. Harding Home, geleë op 380 Mount Vernon Ave. in Marion, OH, is aangewys as 'n National Historic Landmark. Klik hier vir die National Historic Landmark -registrasielêer: teks en foto's. The Harding Home is oop vir toere. 'N Toegangsfooi word gehef. Vir meer inligting besoek die Ohio Historical Society Harding Home-webwerf of bel 800-600-6894.

Besoekers kan ook die indrukwekkende wit Georgiese marmergraf sien wat die oorblyfsels van president en mev. Harding bevat, twee kilometer van hul huis af op die hoek van State Rte. 423 en Vernon Heights Blvd.


Harding Universiteit

Harding University, 'n privaat Christelike universiteit verbonde aan die Kerke van Christus, is geleë in Searcy (White County), ongeveer 200 hektaar net oos van die middestad. Dit is die grootste private opvoedkundige instelling in Arkansas. Die leuse van die Universiteit van Harding is 'Ontwikkel Christenknegte'.

Die skool is gestig in Morrilton (Conway County). In April 1924 het die direksies van twee sukkelende Christelike junior kolleges, Arkansas Christian College van Morrilton en Harper College van Harper, Kansas, ooreengekom om hul bates te kombineer en 'n enkele vierjarige instelling te stig. Adlai S. Croom was president en stigter van Arkansas Christian College (1922), met 'n fakulteit van tien, terwyl John N. Armstrong president was van Harper College met 'n fakulteit van sewentien. Die twee junior kolleges voltooi die gradeplegtigheid in die lente van 1924, en toe verhuis Harper College -studente en fakulteite betyds na Morrilton om saam te kom vir die herfsemester.

Die nuwe Harding College is vernoem ter ere van die ontslape pionierprediker en opvoeder James A. Harding. Armstrong is gekies as president van Harding College, met Croom as vise -president. Harding College het amptelik op 23 September 1924 begin, met 'n besetting van Arkansas Christian se veertig hektaar kampus net noord van Morrilton. Die kollege het ses en twintig fakulteite en 284 studente uit sewentien state gehad. Slegs vyf-en-sewentig studente was op universiteitsvlak, die res was op die laerskool en hoërskool op die akademie.

Die eerste twaalf weke herfsperiode kos studente $ 25 onderrig plus $ 7,50 per maand kamerhuur en $ 15 kos. Die totale jaarlikse uitgawes was minder as $ 300, en nog steeds het baie studente gewerk of beurse ontvang om dit by te woon. Die kollege het nog geen slaapsale gehad nie. Jong mans woon in die stad en jong dames het in 'n omgeboude hospitaalgebou gewoon. Klasse is van Dinsdag tot Saterdag gehou sodat jong manne wat preek om hulself te onderhou, Sondag na die kampus kan terugkeer en 'n dag kan studeer.

Staatsakkreditasie is in 1928 behaal. Die studentekorps het in 1933 gestyg tot 430, van vyf-en-twintig state, Kanada en Mexiko. Ondanks al die sukses en groei, het die jong kollege toenemende finansiële probleme ondervind. Daar was nie genoeg geld om aan die vereistes van groei en instandhouding van geboue te voldoen nie. Hierdie tekort het gepaard gegaan met die voortdurende depressie. Ongeag, in 1934 koop die Harding -raad die afgedankte Methodiste -skool, Galloway Women's College of Searcy, wat besig was om saam met Hendrix College in Conway (Faulkner County) te konsolideer.

Harding College heropen in Searcy die herfs van 1934 met 461 studente, laerskool deur die kollege. Teen 1936 het die universiteit ernstige finansiële probleme ondervind. In April het president Armstrong die direksie gevra om hom deur 'n jonger man te vervang en George S. Benson aanbeveel. Benson het onmiddellik begin met besparingshervormings en het die skool op 'n streng begroting geplaas. Tog het die bank die skool in die steek gelaat, maar aangesien daar geen ander kopers was nie, het Benson die geleentheid gebied om die verband van $ 68 000 te betaal. Na intensiewe geldinsameling en geskenke van Clinton Davidson en George Pepperdine, is die verband op 'n seremonie op die voorste grasperk op 30 November 1939 verbrand.

Benson se ervarings as sendelingonderwyser in China tydens stygende kommunisme en sosialisme het 'n waardering vir die vrye ondernemingstelsel van die Verenigde State en vir die vryhede ingevolge die Grondwet ingeburger. Na 'n voorlegging aan die House Ways and Means -komitee waarin hy argumenteer vir die afskaffing van sekere New Deal -programme om federale uitgawes te verminder, was Benson in aanvraag as 'n nasionale spreker. As gevolg van hierdie sukses en met ondersteuning van die Harding -raad, het Benson op 27 Mei 1943 die National Education Program (NEP) ingehuldig as 'n manier om studente en volwassenes oor die hele land op te voed oor die politieke en ekonomiese stelsels van Amerika. Die NEP het Freedom Forums op die Harding -kampus gehou vir studente, opvoeders en sakemanne.

Die oorlogsjare was vir Harding maer en moeilik, net soos vir baie ander kolleges omdat soveel jong mans weg was. Inskrywing gedurende die oorlogsjare was ongeveer 338, maar die kollege het dit oorleef, en met die einde van die oorlog, die terugkeer van die soldate en die GI -wetsontwerp wat in 1946 geïmplementeer is, het die inskrywing gestyg tot 637 en dan tot 728 in 1947.

As 'n uitbreiding van die NEP -missie, het Benson in 1952 begin met die American Studies Program om die onderrig en opleiding van studente en onderwysers in die grondbeginsels van die Grondwet te rig. Die American Studies Institute, soos dit vandag bekend staan, gaan jaarliks ​​voort om 'n reeks indrukwekkende nasionale en wêreldleiers aan Harding en die gemeenskap te bring, waaronder Dame Margaret Thatcher, voormalige president George HW Bush, voormalige presidentsvrou Barbara Bush, Mikhail Gorbachev, Lech Walesa, Colin Powell en Alex Haley, onder vele ander.

Ten tyde van sy aftrede in 1965, het Benson toesig gehou oor die bou van vyftien geboue, insluitend slaapsale, woonstelle, 'n gimnasium, administrasie- en klaskamergeboue, 'n biblioteek en die American Heritage Center, 'n gebou met vier verdiepings wat 'n hotel, kantore bevat , kafeteria en ouditorium. Onder leiding van Benson het die North Central Association Harding geakkrediteer op 14 Maart 1954. Harding geïntegreer in 1963.

Op 18 September 1965 oorhandig Benson die presidentskap van die kollege aan dr. Clifton L. Ganus Jr. In die herfs van 1965 het 1,472 studente ingeskryf, en teen die einde van tien jaar was daar 2,467 studente. Gedurende hierdie groeiperiode is twee vrouenslaapkamers en twee manshuise bygevoeg, tesame met 'n opnamestudio vir Harding se kore, 'n nuwe wetenskapgebou, 'n kunssentrum, 'n musieksentrum, biblioteekuitbreidings en die Ezell Bybelgebou.

In 1965 het die National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 'n beurs befonds vir dr. Robert Thomas Clark, 'n Harding -navorsingswetenskaplike op die gebied van fisiese kondisionering, om te werk aan tegnieke om die ruimtevaardigheid van ruimtevaarders te verbeter. Hierdie verhouding met NASA het meer as tien jaar geduur. Harding het in 1975 'n verpleegskool bygevoeg om sy vyftigste bestaansjaar te vier.

Met sy voortgesette groei en sukses het die Harding -raad besluit dat die kollege na universiteitstatus moet oorgaan. Dit is op 27 Augustus 1979 bereik, en die skool se naam het die Universiteit van Harding geword.

In 1980 het Harding 'n wêreldwye uitbreiding onderneem toe hy fasiliteite in Florence, Italië, gehuur het. Die Harding International Studies -program was onmiddellik suksesvol, en in 1984 koop die universiteit 'n villa op 'n heuwel suidoos van Florence. Sedertdien woon en studeer ongeveer veertig studente en twee fakulteitslede per semester in die villa en het hulle tyd om deur Europa te reis.

In 1985 het Sam Walton, stigter van Walmart Inc., Harding, John Brown University en die Universiteit van die Ozarks gevra om 'n beursprogram te ontwikkel om jongmense uit sewe Sentraal -Amerikaanse nasies en Mexiko te leer oor demokrasie en vryheid. Sam en Helen Walton van Bentonville (Benton County) het die fonds toegeken om volle beurse aan uitstaande studente uit hierdie nasies te verstrek met die verstandhouding dat die studente na hul gradeplegtigheid na hul lande sou terugkeer en daar werk sou kry. Die Walton -beursprogram duur vandag voort met sestig Walton -studente op die kampus van Harding.

Teen 1987, toe Ganus afgetree het, het die universiteit 2,998 studente uit vyf-en-veertig state en vier-en-twintig buitelandse lande, saam met 'n begroting van $ 25,6 miljoen. Die kampus het uitgebrei tot 200 hektaar en meer as vyf-en-veertig geboue met 'n totale bate van $ 90 miljoen. Tydens die Ganus -administrasie is ongeveer $ 49 miljoen ingesamel.

Die direksie het dr. David Burks as die volgende president gekies, en hy het die leisels geneem op 10 Mei 1987. Burks het voortgegaan in die tradisie van sy voorgangers en 'n ambisieuse visie voorgestel om die studentekorps te vergroot en om kampusgeriewe uit te brei en te verbeter. Teen 1997 het die inskrywing van studente 4,140 bereik, alle groot geboue is opgeknap en vergroot, en 'n nuwe studentesentrum en die McInteer Bybel- en Wêreldmissiesentrum is voltooi. Die biblioteek is uitgebrei met meer as 500 000 volumes.

Een van die belangrikste uitbreidings was die verbintenis tot Harding se wêreldwye uitreik. Die universiteit het nou twee permanente oorsese kampusse in Florence, Italië en Athene, Griekeland, en bied semesterprogramme aan in Brisbane, Australië, Londen, Engeland en in Chili, Frankryk en Zambië.

Tydens Burks se administrasie het die universiteit meer as $ 96 miljoen ingesamel, met 'n skenking van meer as $ 105 miljoen en bates meer as $ 254 miljoen. Baie nuwe geboue is bygevoeg, insluitend fasiliteite vir musiek, kommunikasie, verpleegkunde, spraakpatologie, apteek, fisioterapie en opvoeding. Nuwe hoofvakke soos huweliks- en gesinsberadingsrekenaars, meganiese, elektriese en biomediese ingenieurswese -apteek en fisiese terapie is bygevoeg om tred te hou met die eise van studente.

In Amerikaanse nuus en wêreldverslagDie jaarlikse "Beste kollege" -uitgawe, Harding University is al dertien jaar lank gereken as een van die beste streeksuniversiteite in die suide en is die Arkansas-skool met die hoogste posisie in die kategorie. Harding is gereeld in die top 125 skole in die land vir die inskrywing van National Merit Scholars.

Sedert 2001 is die Universiteit van Harding onder vele ander skole wat gevorderde grade buite die kampus aanbied om aan die groeiende vraag van onderwysers te voldoen wat hul loopbane wil verbeter. In die lente van 2001 het Harding sy eerste sodanige program in North Little Rock (Pulaski County) in huurruimte geopen. Dit is gevolg in die herfs van 2005 in Bentonville met die opening van die Northwest Arkansas Professional Center wat in die somer van 2008 begin is. Die herfs van 2009 het die Mid-South Professional Center in Memphis, Tennessee, geopen, wat die daaropvolgende lente gevolg is met die aanvang van 'n graadopleidingprogram in die North Little Rock Professional Center. Die sukses van hierdie programme het die universiteit in staat gestel om uit die gehuurde ruimte te verhuis en sy eie permanente fasiliteit te bou om die Northwest Arkansas Professional Center te bedien, wat in Januarie 2013 geopen is. Ander uitbreidings het gevolg in Clarksville (Johnson County), Nashville (Howard County), Pine Bluff (Jefferson County), Rogers (Benton County) en buite die kampus in Searcy. Harding bied nou klasse aan vir beide voorgraadse voltooiing en nagraadse grade by hierdie sentrums, sowel as aanlyn. Vanaf 2016 het 'n geskatte inskrywing van 760 studente aan die Harding -universiteit se gegradueerde uitbreidingsprogramme.

Dr Bruce D. McLarty het amptelik die vyfde president van Harding geword op 1 Junie 2013. Die jaar daarna het die universiteit se doktor in fisiese terapie -program die volle akkreditasiestatus gekry deur die Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE). McLarty kondig sy uittrede in November 2020 aan, met die raad van trustees wat finansiële uitdagings noem as 'n verandering in leierskap.

Harding bied ses en negentig baccalaureusgraadprogramme, twaalf pre-professionele programme en vyftien meesters-, twee spesialis- en vier doktorale programme aan. Agt en sestig persent van die fakulteit het 'n doktorsgraad of 'n ander terminale graad. In September 2014 kom die universiteit se 6,075 studente uit vyftig state en agt en veertig buitelandse lande. Van alle studente wat met baccalaureusgrade aan private instellings in Arkansas studeer, studeer 'n derde aan die Harding -universiteit.

Vir meer inligting:
Burks, David B., red. Against the Grain: The Mission of Harding University. Searcy, AR: Harding University, 1998.

"Vyftigste verjaardag Harding -universiteit, 1924-1974: Onderrig vir ewigheid." Spesiale insetsel, Arkansas Gazette, 17 Februarie 1974.

Harding Universiteit. http://www.harding.edu/ (21 Desember 2017 geraadpleeg).

Sleutel, Barclay. "Op die periferie van die burgerregtebeweging: ras en godsdiens aan Harding College, 1945–1969." Arkansas Historical Quarterly 68 (Herfs 2009): 283–311.

Nichols, James Don. A History of Harding College, 1924 tot 1984. N.p .: 1985.

Paul D. Haynie
Harding Universiteit


Harding Travels - Geskiedenis

U gebruik 'n verouderd blaaier. Gradeer u blaaier op om u ervaring te verbeter.

Toelatings en hulp

Akademici

Studentelewe

Oor Harding

INLIGTING VIR

Kyk na ons opgedateerde kampusstatus elke week op harding.edu/COVID.

In hierdie afdeling

Vreemde tale en internasionale studies

In hierdie afdeling

Vreemde tale en internasionale studies

Vreemde tale en internasionale studies

Maak gereed om die wêreld te sien - ontdek reisgeleenthede en kulturele ervarings wat u nie in die klas sal kry nie.

Ontdek programme wat dwarsdissiplinêre studies in vreemde taal, wêreldpolitiek en meer bied.

Raak betrokke by plaaslike geleenthede om te leer - soos om in die onderdompelingskamers te woon

Sluit by ons aan vir Face a Face en word verdiep in die kultuur en taal van die Franssprekende Europa.

Ons missie

Die missie van die Departement Vreemde Tale en Internasionale Studies aan die Harding Universiteit is om taalleerders toe te rus vir diens in beide plaaslike en globale gemeenskappe deur die ontwikkeling van interkulturele bevoegdheid en effektiewe kommunikasie in een of meer wêreld tale. Ons fakulteit, studente en alumni eer God deur hul diens in missies, onderwys, diplomasie, studie en navorsing op nagraadse vlak, werk saam met organisasies sonder winsbejag, loopbane in die geesteswetenskappe, kommunikasie, besigheid, gesondheidswetenskappe en meer.

Uitreikgeleenthede

Elkeen van ons fakulteitslede was in 'n sekere hoedanigheid betrokke by oorsese sendingwerk. God gebruik ons ​​tans om mense oor die hele wêreld te bereik deur middel van somerveldtogte in Franssprekende Europa en in Suid-Amerika, sowel as deur die fakulteit en studente wat vir verskillende ministeries redigeer, vertaal of onderrig gee. Ons moedig studente ook aan om deel te neem aan uitreike hier in die Searcy -omgewing, waar geleenthede vir interaksie met moedertaalsprekers van ander tale groot is.

Uitstekende programme

Al ons hoofvakke baat by dieselfde taalopleiding wat aangebied word deur ons nasionaal erkende lisensieprogramme vir onderwysers, wat die status van die American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages ​​(ACTFL) en CAEP, die Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation, ontvang het. Hierdie erkenning plaas ons in die topvlak van departemente vreemde taal van kolleges en universiteite in die Verenigde State.


Klein nuwe Mexikaanse dorpe ry oor geskiedenis

DIE GROND KOM EERSTE. Dit het altyd. Dit was aan die begin hier —, dit was die begin —, en die einde daarvan sal ook ons ​​einde wees. Dit is die plek waaruit elke verhaal hier in Harding County begin. Binne sy bereik van tweeduisend-vierkante myl in die noordooste van New Mexico lê grasvelde en canyons en riviere en plase en dorpe en spore van verlate prairie-opstal. Daar is 'n spiritualiteit, die gevoel van 'n groter teenwoordigheid, van aandag, ongeag hoe klein die detail is. As die son daaroor val, verander die lig windpompe in sonwysers, verhit die wind van die prairie en ryp die tuimelkruie wat langs drifheinings versamel. Dan skyn die land self saggies te gloei, asof dit van binne verlig word. Die grasse swaai, die beeste murmureer, en as jy staan ​​en die wind by jou verby laat jaag, beweeg die land, alles, betyds tot 'n ritme wat jy meer voel as om te hoor.

Die mense hier is mal oor die land en voel dat hulle bestuurders daarvan moet wees. Sommige van hul voorouers het honderd of meer jaar gelede gekom, dikwels as opstalters, wat hierdie westelike rand van die prairie verbind het met die groter verhaal van die Groot Vlaktes. Hulle is, net soos die land, sterk en subtiel. Saam verduur hulle.

In die hele Harding County vind u slegs twee restaurante, een koffiewinkel, een brouery, twee skole, een vulstasie en 760 gemeenskapsleiers, sake -eienaars, boere, kunstenaars, onderwysers en studente. Ek het hulle nie almal ontmoet nie, soos ek gehoop het. Maar ek het 'n goeie duik gemaak terwyl ek onderweg die ontdekkings van hierdie gemeenskap ontdek het, getemper deur die wil om stil te staan ​​en te waardeer.

IN MOSQUERO INRY, Ek wonder hoe iemand hier slaap, wat met al die rumoer. Brandbestryders blus. Twee mans wat kitare stamp. Cowboys wat beeste ry. En 'n helikopter!

Ding is egter dat daar geen geluid is nie. En niemand beweeg nie. Al die mense is verby inwoners van Mosquero, wat nou onthou word in lewensagtige voorstellings wat op geboue geverf is. Die idee kom van Mosquero -studente in 2008. Met hul onderwyser, Donna Hazen, en die leiding van 'n professionele muurskilder, het hulle die beelde van ou gesinsfoto's geskilder. Die effek is transformerend: 'n stad wat lewe met sy verlede.

Hierdie gemeenskap is 'n juweel, sê Tuda Libby Crews. Sy en haar suster, Mary Libby Campbell, is my gidse na Harding County. Ons kom bymekaar in 'n lieflike plek genaamd die pastorie. Dit was eens die tuiste van die plaaslike geestelikes, maar dit het verval totdat Tuda dit as 'n gastehuur herstel het. Een slaapkamer het 'n Murphy -bed in 'n kamer waar die priester kanaries gehou het. As u dus daar slaap en droom dat u vlieg, weet u hoekom.

Mary en Tuda is een van die mense wat probeer om Harding County gesond te hou en die neiging tot migrasie te voorkom wat so gereeld landelike gemeenskappe tref. Mary is uitvoerende direkteur van die Harding County MainStreet -program, en sy en haar man bedryf Yesterday ’s Valley Ranch. Tuda bestuur die Ute Creek Cattle Company. Albei is hier gebore en getoë. Tydens 'n tuisgemaakte maaltyd bespreek ons ​​'n paar van die dinge wat hulle gedoen het om hul gemeenskappe te versterk. Veral een interesseer my. In 2007 het ongeveer honderd inwoners gestem oor dinge wat hulle wil sien gebeur, soos geleenthede vir jongmense en 'n verbeterde ekonomie. Die beste stemme-kryer en#x2014 wen 58 stemme — was 'n positiewe, progressiewe uitkyk en houding. ”

Bo: 'n verlate opstal tussen Roy en Mosquero.

Ek sien die gesindheid tydens my besoek. En ek kan getuig: tot dusver, so goed. “I ry deur en hou daarvan, ” sê Jimmie Ridge toe ek hom vra hoe hy by Mosquero gekom het. Ons sit in sy winkel, Elle J ’s Town and Country Market. 'N Wêreldkaart op die muur prik met spelde wat die tuisdorpe van besoekers aandui. Sy hond rus op die vloer. Jimmy, afgetree by die weermag, het gereeld gereis, maar toe hy in 2010 deur Mosquero ry, voel dit anders.

Hy het na my geroep en gesê: 'Hallo, maak dit u huis. sedertdien gelukkig om te wees waar hy daagliks byna al sy bure kan sien.

Net langs die pad is Callahan West Brewery. Pete Callahan sê hy ken 'n goeie bier, daarom koop hy die gebou om sy eie brouery te begin. He offers three specialty beers�rk, medium, and light𠅊long with New Mexico wines. He makes good use of the space: The bar is the old mercantile counter left over from the Schollenberger Mercantile Company, the former occupant. But what I notice first is the wall of books, more than 3,000 of them, history and romance and even books specially formatted to fit cowboys’ pants pockets. Pete began reading Ian Fleming spy novels at age five, he says, so Dick and Jane came as a disappointment.

“I’m pretty happy here,” he says. �r and books.” When Jill and Jack Chatfield decided in 2016 that they wanted to open a restaurant in Mosquero, they realized they already had one—they just needed to put walls around it. So they rented the building at the end of the street, a former mercantile with a garage door, through which they pulled the mobile food truck they𠆝 used for catering, and made it the kitchen of their Headquarters restaurant. “The community has been so happy,” Jill says. And if they ever want to expand, she and her husband joke, they can just put in a double-wide.

Headquarters’ specialty is the KendraBurger, invented by the cook, Kendra Price, who replaces the top bun with 𠇏irecracker beans.” There’s no wrong way to eat one—you just go. Soon your mouth is filled with the flavors of beef, cheese, onions, and other ingredients I can’t list because I spilled the explosively spicy beans on my notes.

Look around the restaurant and you might see Jill’s father, Harry H. Hopson. Born in 1927, he’ll tell tales of growing up and working as a cowboy around northeastern New Mexico. Like riding with the cowboys when he was only five, laying his bedroll over oat sacks in the chuck wagon to keep hungry mules away at night. Or loading cattle onto the old Dawson Railway that ran through Harding County and whose vestiges still remain along NM 39. “I broke horses all my life,” he says as country music plays and everyone who comes in or out stops to greet him.

Ranching is an important part of the heritage and economic viability of Harding County. Blair Clavel, the county extension agent, says that, barring a few acres of Forest Service land and the towns themselves, the entire county is dedicated to ranching and agriculture. So I happily accept an invitation to visit Tuda on her ranch in Bueyeros. Founded in the early 1800s, it’s a beautiful place, with low grassy hills and endless views. Tuda describes it with the Spanish word tranquilo. Her compassionate care for both the cattle and the land earned the ranch an Excellence in Range Management award from the international Society for Range Management. And the bird sanctuary she created on a hill behind her house, with fruit trees and watering fountains, has netted her a nickname, “the Bird Lady of Bueyeros.”

We’re on the way to see a project she undertook with the New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program that uses small plastic balls to reduce stock-tank evaporation when, passing her husband, Jack, and the ranch manager, Jeremiah, moving cattle between pastures, Tuda pulls over so we can watch. We sit quietly and admire their cowboy skills. It’s a charming interlude. Tranquilo.

ONE BRIGHT AFTERNOON finds me with Vanita Menapace at a rock dugout built into a hillside in Solano. We duck inside to a cool interior, empty and earthen but solid, a rock fireplace in one corner, the original cedar beams holding up the roof. This was the homestead that Vanita’s grandfather built to shelter his wife and eight kids after they arrived from Kansas around 1900. Vanita points out where the rocks, hauled by wagon from a hill a quarter-mile away, meet the hillside. �n you imagine carrying those things around?” she asks. I can’t.

Eventually, her grandfather built a grander house a mile away, where Vanita now lives. She’s recently added cabins and opened them as a guest ranch. But the place needed a catchy name. Vanita liked the song “The Rhythm Ranch” by the pop group Huey Lewis and the News, and she𠆝 even met Lewis himself a few times. Once, at a concert, she asked if it would be okay to name her ranch after his song. He agreed, although he hasn’t visited the ranch—yet.

If your tank is close to E, you better stop at the Roy Fuel Stop, in Roy, because this is the only gas station in Harding County. Between fixing flats and changing oil, Rick Hazen, who runs the garage, finds time to talk. We sit on folding chairs in the shade, so it’s cool despite the warm breeze off the prairie. Cars pass by, and the drivers wave and we wave back. “It’s something that’s needed here,” Rick says of the station. The place is authentically vintage, built in the 1920s and not much changed since then, except that the pumps now take credit cards.

Rick was raised in Mosquero and went to college to study woodworking. He started teaching industrial arts in Roswell, then here in Roy. Eventually he became superintendent, a job he held for the last eight years of his 30-year tenure. Several times, he turned down superintendent jobs in other districts because he liked Roy and wanted to raise his kids in a small town. “People are pretty close here,” he says. “You know everybody. People watch out for each other. It’s a Western town.” Rick’s mother, Lonita Hazen, is remembered in the name of Lonita’s Cafe, down the street, the only other restaurant in the county. Before she passed, Lonita had been in the restaurant business for 40 years, including in a different building here in town. When Rick’s daughter bought the current building and opened it as a restaurant in 2017, she named it in her grandmother’s honor and gave jobs to local folks such as June Mahoney.

The motto printed on the menu boasts, 𠇊 small town café for a big appetite!” I qualify, so over a few days I frequent the place: hamburger one day, enchiladas another, even the fried pickles. Their specialty is homemade pies𠅌oconut cream, chocolate, peach𠅊ll from Lonita’s original recipes. That’s her, Lonita, in the photograph on the wall, keeping an eye on things.

AT ROY HIGH SCHOOL, I get to meet the senior class. His name is Tyler Overberger. While there are almost 50 students in Roy, most are in the lower grades, leaving Tyler alone at the top. He knows the other kids are watching him, which may be why he does so much: Boys State, football, 4-H, student council. He’s a member of Harding County MainStreet and the Chamber of Commerce. He also somehow finds time to run his own landscaping business.

“I have high expectations for myself,” Tyler says. He shows me around the school, including the cattle feeder he built in shop class last year and the classroom where he takes distance-learning courses to earn college credit. Outside, we walk the length of the football field. To ensure enough players for a team, students in Roy and Mosquero join to form one team, supported by both communities.

Above (from left to right): Rick Hazen, Tyler Overberger, and June Mahoney.

Later, Tyler drives me to his old family ranch house, now empty. This was the home of his maternal great-grandfather, who arrived from Germany just before Hitler’s rise. Finding work with the couple who had homesteaded this property, he eventually bought it and raised a family through difficult times: Tyler’s grandmother recalls playing with the Dust Bowl dirt that forced its way past the blankets covering the windows. She remembers also the day their last horse died, choked to death by the dirt in the air—remembers it clearly, because it was the only time she ever saw her father cry. But he never left. This was his home. Tyler wants to go into politics to give something back to the community. Remember his name. You’ll hear it again.

I&aposM LATE FOR MY VISIT with U.S. Forest Service District Ranger Mike Atkinson, because the sun is coming up and everything is purple and I can’t keep my eyes on the road. I have to pull over and take it in. It’s impossible to multitask during a Harding County sunrise. Mike forgives me because, he confesses, he has often done the same thing himself.

We drive the uneven road down into Mills Canyon, to the ruins of the Orchard Ranch, the dream of turn-of-the-century tycoon Melvin Mills, who planted fruit trees on the fertile bottomlands alongside the Canadian River. Mike and I wander the two-story remains of what was once the main house, looking at joints in the stonework and trying to imagine the original layout of the rooms. We wouldn’t have to imagine had a late September rain in 1904 not flooded the canyon and destroyed the ranch. Mills tried again, but he never recovered, dying broke and broken a few years later. It’s a haunting place, and I’m glad I’m not here alone.

Making our way back to the highway, Mike points north to Sugarloaf Mountain. Mountains like that, he says, rising above the open landscape, served as markers for early travelers. We discuss the land, so wide and unending. There’s a beauty here, Mike says, that wraps itself around you. It reminds him of his time in the Navy and the vastness of the ocean.

“It all looks the same, except there are subtle changes,” he says. “Like when the sky darkens, the ocean reflects that darkness. And the landscape here does the same.”

As my ramble through Harding County comes to a close, I realize how right he is. To dismiss this land as featureless, as some drive-through travelers do, is to miss the forest for the lack of trees. It’s the subtleties of the land that give it depth, that make it move. And just like there were landmarks for early travelers on the land itself, there are landmarks in daily life, little things that offer a sense of security, let you know you’re on the right path. Like beds that make you dream of flying. And meals that warm you inside. A community that comes together to improve itself, and a young man who plans to one day help guide it. It’s handshakes and laughter and quiet moments spent watching the world pass beautifully by.

ALL THE NEWS
The main source of Harding County news comes courtesy of Mosquero High students, who produce the Harding County Roundup, covering local events, agriculture, marriages, and deaths. You can subscribe, even if you don’t live there (575-673-2271).

HARDING COUNTY HOW-TO
Deel van La Frontera del Llano Scenic Byway runs through Harding County, connecting the communities of Mosquero, Solano, Roy, and Mills. Kiowa National Grassland—the only national grassland in New Mexico—surrounds the village of Mills, from which you can reach Mills Canyon for hiking, bouldering, and camping. High-clearance vehicle suggested (575-374-9652, nmmag.us/NFSKiowa). Tuda Libby Crews will show visitors around her Ute Creek Cattle Company, in Bueyeros (575-673-2267, utecreekcattlecompany.com).

Harding County artists include Mae Shaw, who paints and crafts jewelry from old silverware (221 E. 5th St., Roy, 575-485-4739), and Leroy Trujillo, a santero working in the traditional Spanish Colonial style (220 Roosevelt Ave., Roy, 575-207-8768).

Callahan West Brewery serves three craft beers, New Mexico wines, and wood-fired Neapolitan pizza, 4� p.m., Monday–Saturday (22 Main St., Mosquero, 575-366-3330, on Facebook).

Hoofkwartier restaurant satisfies eaters May through August, Monday–Saturday, 7 a.m.𠄷 p.m., and Sunday, 10 a.m.𠄳 p.m. September through April, Monday–Saturday, 9 a.m.𠄶 p.m., and Sunday, 10 a.m.𠄲 p.m. (20 Main St., Mosquero, 575-673-0201, on Facebook).

Lonita’s Cafe dishes up fine pies, Monday𠄿riday, 11 a.m.𠄷 p.m. Saturday, 8 a.m.𠄷 p.m. and Sunday, 8 a.m.𠄲 p.m. (275 Richelieu St., Roy, 575-485-0191, on Facebook).

Claudia’s Coffee serves homemade sweets and breakfast burritos within Ma Sally’s Mercantile (which sells pretty much everything else), Monday𠄿riday, 7� a.m. (450 Richelieu St., Roy, 575-485-5599).

The Rectory offers fine accommodations in a restored parsonage (10 S. 4th St., Mosquero, 575-673-2267, utecreekcattlecompany.com).

The Bunkhouse has the essentials at a low price: two-bedroom suites with a kitchenette (35 S. 3rd St., Mosquero, 575-673-3030).

By die Rhythm Ranch, guests enjoy two cabins, a recreation room, and an old wagon repurposed as a stargazing platform. Cabins have refrigerators, stoves, bathrooms, and Wi-Fi. Open from the last weekend of April through the last weekend of September (565 Ross Road, Solano, 575-673-0003, or email [email protected]).

The Sundance Bed and Bath has one-bedroom apartment-style places with kitchenettes and Wi-Fi (408 Chicosa St., Roy, 575-447-7026).

At the historic Mesa Hotel, some rooms don’t have showers, so ask for one if preferrred (584 Richelieu St., Roy, 575-485-2661).

La Casita is a guesthouse with a bunkhouse vibe RV parking available (150 NM 120, Roy, 575-265-9088).

Die RV Ranch and Horse Hotel, on the Ray Ranch, offers a historic four-room rock house with full kitchen (89 Salamon Road, Roy, 575-485-2559).


Untamed Harding County

Harding County, in the far northwestern corner of South Dakota, is decidedly rural. Buffalo, the county seat with a population of 330, is the largest town. Camp Crook has 100, and smaller communities like Ralph, Reva, Ludlow, Ladner and Harding might have a few ranch families. The county as a whole is home to 1,255 people, making it the second least populated county in South Dakota. Cattle and sheep outnumber people almost 10 to 1, and the most legendary stories are about a killer wolf with three toes and a rambunctious rodeo bronc that has been memorialized in bronze. Still, Harding County&rsquos unique geography and history have drawn curious travelers and explorers for centuries.

It began even before there was a Harding County. The place was created in 1881 and named for Dr. John A. Harding, a dry goods merchant and postmaster from Deadwood who was also serving as Speaker of the House in the Dakota Territorial Legislature. Harding County merged for a few years with Butte County, its neighbor to the south, then became separate again in 1909.

On his gold exploring expedition to the Black Hills in 1874, Gen. George Custer heard stories from a Lakota guide named Goose about unique drawings etched into canyon walls. Goose brought him to the Cave Hills north of present day Buffalo, which boasts several petroglyphs dating back thousands of years.

There are drawings of bison, antelope, a warrior and spear and others even more difficult to discern because of their age and the effects of weathering. A member of the expedition is thought to have carved his initials into a rock wall that also bears the image of a large body shield and weapon. Names and initials of 20th century visitors can be found, too.

Buffalo is the Harding County seat and features a sculpture of legendary bronc Tipperary in the city park.

The Cave Hills are part of the Custer National Forest, pockets of which are spread throughout the county. The section farther to the east contains the Slim Buttes, a blend of badlands, pine forest and mesas that runs 40 miles north to south and stretches 20 miles wide. Local ranchers have named most of the peaks and buttes. There are the Seals, the Three Sisters, Doc Hodges Draw, Adam and Eve Butte and Battleship Rock. Highway 79 crosses Slim Buttes to the south and Highway 20 runs west of Reva.

One of the more spectacular features of the Slim Buttes is the Castles, one of South Dakota&rsquos 13 National Natural Landmarks. The Castles are an L-shaped ridge of bluffs that stretch 30 miles across eastern Harding County. The twin white buttes looming south of Highway 20 contain exposed rock dating as far back as the Upper Cretaceous period (100 million to 66 million years old) through the Miocene (23 million to 5 million years old). The Castles also contain a variety of fossils, but collection is prohibited because they lie within the Custer National Forest.

Their name comes from John Finerty, an Irish newspaperman who traveled with Gen. George Crook&rsquos Expedition of 1876. As they passed through the rugged country, Finerty compared the formation to &ldquoa series of mammoth Norman castles.&rdquo They look particularly medieval in the morning or evening light, when the white stone shines like polished granite.

The area is also historically important. A memorial and three graves just east of the Castles mark the scene of the Battle of Slim Buttes, a fight between a few hundred Indians and 2,000 cavalrymen in September 1876, just three months after the Battle of the Little Bighorn. After that defeat, Captain Anson Mills was ordered to the Black Hills to resupply. His march took him through the Slim Buttes, the site of American Horse&rsquos camp. Troops surrounded the village of 37 lodges and opened fire. American Horse was shot through the abdomen, but refused help from Army surgeons. He died within days. Locals say you can still see scars from the bullets on ancient trees along Deer Draw Pass. Headstones mark the burial site of three cavalry soldiers who died in the conflict. The graves are east of the Castles along Highway 20.

The Island is a mesa in the Cave Hills that has attracted people for centuries.

Another gravesite in the Slim Buttes is a reminder of South Dakota&rsquos vicious winters. During the notorious Children&rsquos Blizzard of January 1888, Otis Bye, a scout and trapper, was away from home. His wife ventured outside to save their horses. Her frozen body was found days later, watched over by the family dog. Decades later, neighbors erected a gravestone at the site. Find it by driving east of Buffalo on Highway 20 about 19 miles to North End Road. Take a left and drive a quarter of a mile until you reach an old trail. Hike down the trail to the gravesite.

With its abundance of ranches, it&rsquos no surprise that rodeo has had a strong presence in Harding County. South Dakota&rsquos most famous bucking bronc was was born on a ranch by Long Pines in 1905. He bolted the first time a rider attempted to get on his back, so ranchers deemed him unfit for ranch work. Later they tried him as a rodeo bronc. Ed Marty was the first to try a ride and was immediately thrown clear. &ldquoIt&rsquos a long, long way to Tipperary!&rdquo he said, thus giving the horse his name.

For 15 years, 82 cowboys tried and failed to ride Tipperary. Then came the Belle Fourche Roundup in 1920, where Yakima Canutt became the first &mdash and only &mdash cowboy ever to successfully stay atop Tipperary. Despite his victory, cowboys still debated the merits of the ride because rainfall made the arena muddy. Tipperary slipped to his knees and never gained strong footing.

Members of Custer's 1874 Black Hills expedition are thought to have scrawled initials into this rock wall in the Cave Hills. It also contains an ancient depiction of a shield.

Tipperary died during a blizzard in 1932, but people in Buffalo and Harding County never forgot their star athlete. In 1955 they erected a monument in Buffalo&rsquos city park, and in 2009 the town dedicated a half-size statue done by cowboy sculptor Tony Chytka of Belle Fourche. There&rsquos also an exhibit dedicated to Tipperary inside the Buffalo Museum.

A wild contemporary of Tipperary&rsquos was Three Toes, a gray wolf that terrorized ranchers and sheepherders for 13 years, killing at least $50,000 worth of stock. Legendary sheepherder and writer Archie Gilfillan described the carnage. &ldquoOther wolves might kill one cow or sheep and eat off that and be satisfied. But Three Toes killed for the sheer love of killing. He would kill on a full stomach as well as when hungry. On one occasion he visited three different ranches in one night, killed many sheep and lambs at each one, but ate only the liver of one lamb.&rdquo

His reign of terror began in 1912, which was about the time he sustained the injury that gave him his name. One of his toes was pinched off in a trap, and from that day the tracks he left in the dirt and snow were as distinguishing as a human fingerprint.

It was estimated that 150 men tried at one time or another to capture him, but Three Toes always seemed to have speed, intelligence and luck on his side. By 1925, he was killing at a rate of $1,000 worth of stock a month. The Harding County Commission raised the bounty on him to $500. A federal hunter named Clyde Briggs, an experienced hunter of gray wolves, came to Harding County and set an elaborate network of traps that extended 33 miles around Three Toes&rsquo favorite ranch targets. On July 23, Briggs descended into the Little Missouri River valley and discovered Three Toes caught in the snares of two traps. He was muzzled and loaded into Briggs&rsquo car but died before they reached Buffalo.

Three Toes and Tipperary are long gone, but their legends, the cattle and sheep, the rugged buttes and mesas, the stone johnnies and 1,200 hearty souls remain.

Editor&rsquos Note: This is the 22nd installment in an ongoing series featuring South Dakota&rsquos 66 counties. Click here for previous articles.


Harding's "Voyage of Understanding"

In June 1923 Harding left Washington on a scheduled two-month speaking tour largely aimed at the western United States and Alaska. The president believed his spirits would be revived by first-hand contact with natural beauty and with crowds of people while he sought support for his legislative and foreign policy goals. Harding delivered speeches, shook hands, kissed babies, and went on numerous recreational excursions, including a trip to Yellowstone National Park. However, the president spent much of his travel time restlessly pacing, playing bridge, unnerved, anxious and struggling for sleep as he agonized about the Veteran affairs corruption and oil lease scandals in his administration yet unknown to the public.

President Harding traveled in a special Pullman company observation car, the Superb. Constructed in 1911, the Superb was a 165,000-pound riveted carbon steel model of the finest in well-appointed rail travel technology of the time. It was outfitted with five bedrooms furnished with sinks and toilets, a kitchen, an observation room and a pantry, attached to compartment cars, standard sleepers, baggage cars and a dining car.

On the 470-mile leg of the train journey through Alaska in July 1923, President and Mrs. Harding and their party traveled on Alaska Railroad's Number 618 special in the Denali, an 18 year-old, 10 feet wide, 81 feet long Pullman car with a buffet, drawing and observation rooms.

On July 15, on the run from Wasilla to Willow, Harding (following a short word of instruction from engineer F.W. Brayford) climbed into the engineer's cab with Mrs. Harding, took the throttle and for the next 51 minutes drove the train 26 miles north. A reporter observed that the Hardings "had as much fun as two youngsters on their first train trip." After President Harding's death Mrs. Harding sent the white gloves he had worn while driving the locomotive to engineer Brayford as a memento.

President Harding fell ill on the return sea voyage from Alaska to San Francisco. Listless and exhausted, he died from apoplexy or stroke on the evening of August 2 in his San Francisco hotel room. What had started as a break from political scandals and a desire to communicate directly with the American people ended in a slow train ride back to Washington, D.C. with a casket on a raised bier for thousands of citizens to view and grieve the passing of a popular and beloved leader.


The History of the Crop Over Festival

Crop Over once called “Harvest Home” had its early beginning on the sugar cane plantations during slavery. Since then the festival has evolved into the colourful street parade that it is today. Here is a brief walk through the history of the Crop Over festival in Barbados.

1687: The Year It All Began

The Crop Over tradition began in 1687 to celebrate the end of the sugar cane crop. The last of the season’s crop was brought into the mill yard decorated with bright flowers like hibiscus and bougainvillaea. The first cart was usually led by a woman in a white dress with an elaborate white head-tie with a freshly picked flower tucked into it. (She would be equivalent to the frontline dancers in the modern-day street parade.) She was accompanied by the various sugar cane workers all carrying the final loads of canes. The last cart carried ‘Mr. Harding’ made of cane trash stuffed pants and coat.

‘Mr. Harding’ symbolised the ‘hard time’ between sugar crops when employment was low and money was scare. The parade of people would circle the mill yard 3 or 4 times so an enthusiastic crowd would gather to see the decorations and sing and dance together.

‘Swank’ was a favourite drink back then. It was made of cane liquor diluted with water, molasses, mauby, coconut water, rum and falernum – a very sweet alcoholic drink.

The Tuk Band and its troupe of folk characters like Shaggy Bear, Mother Sally, Donkey Man and Stilt Men were present at the Crop Over of the past and are still present today. Researchers believe that these folk characters are deeply rooted in African ancestral worship along with the music and dance practised at the Crop Over festivals on the plantation grounds. Like today, the music of the past had witty lyrics and a rhythmic beat, in the past the songs were often composed on the spot!

The parade would end with the burning of ‘Mr. Harding’ to symbolise hope that the hard times would not be too rough.

1958: An Attempt at Reviving the Festival after World War II

The Crop Over festival was disbanded due to the harsh effects of World War II on Barbados and the decline of the sugar industry. In an effort to fill the void left by the absence of the festival, the Junior Chamber of Commerce began to host an annual ‘carnival’ at Kensington Oval. This event featured float parades, masquerade bands, calypso contests and beauty pageants. It did not gain much popularity and after 6 years, in 1964, it came to an end.

1974: Crop Over is Revived

In 1974, the BTA (Barbados Tourism Authority) revived the Crop Over festival. The planning committee included local stakeholders like Julian Marryshaw and Emile Straker. Their goal was to create an event that would attract tourists to the island during the ‘slow season’ which coincided with the Crop Over season. The festival began to mimic the popular Trinidad Carnival while keeping the most of Crop Over traditions alive, including the burning of ‘Mr. Harding’, the Tuk band and the Calypso and Soca music contests.

1980s: Good Bye ‘Mr. Harding’

Excited crowds would gather at the Garrison Savannah for the annual burning of ‘Mr. Harding.’ Unfortunately, due to lawless behaviour of the crowd, such as throwing rocks and other things through the large fire, the event was discontinued in the early 1980s.

1983: The National Cultural Foundation Takes Over

The NCF was established in 1983 and has been hosting the Crop Over festival every year since then. Over the years the festival has evolved, some traditions were lost while new ones have emerged. The NCF focuses on showcasing all aspects of Barbadian culture including fine arts, music, dance, food and more at this internationally attended annual festival.

2000s: An Internationally Sought-After Festival

The Crop Over festival has evolved from a celebration of the end of the sugar cane season to a local celebration of thanksgiving to an internationally recognised event. Thousands of visitors and Caribbean diaspora return to the island annually to be a part of the celebrations. In 2014, the Crop Over Festival generated $80 million in economic activity over the 8-week period. The once ‘slow season’ on the island is now booming with parties, events and life.

Barbadian born superstar Rihanna is known to attend the Grand Kadooment Parade annually along with other celebrities and their swarms of paparazzi. A great chance to showcase Barbados and the rich culture of the Crop Over festival to the world.

Today the Crop Over festival ends with Grand Kadooment Day. Colourful masquerades celebrate in a street parade from the National Stadium to Spring Garden Highway. It is truly a party unlike any other.

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Kyk die video: President Harding Tours Alaska in a Specially Adapted Car (Mei 2022).