Geskiedenis Podcasts

Aardbewings veroorsaak verwoesting in Armenië

Aardbewings veroorsaak verwoesting in Armenië

Twee aardbewings het Armenië op 7 Desember 1988 getref, en 60 000 mense is dood en byna 'n halfmiljoen geboue is vernietig. Die twee trillings, slegs 'n paar minute van mekaar, is gemeet op 6,9 en 5,8 in grootte en is tot in Georgië, Turkye en Iran gevoel.

Dit was om 11:41 toe die eerste, meer kragtige aardbewing drie kilometer van Spitak, 'n stad van ongeveer 30 000, en 20 myl noordwes van Kirowakaan, tref. Die episentrum was nie ver onder die oppervlak nie, wat deels verantwoordelik is vir die verskriklike vernietiging. Slegs vier minute later tref die bewing van 5,8 in die omtrek naby geboue wat ineengestort het wat skaars daarin kon slaag tydens die eerste aardbewing. Daar is later bevind dat die aardbewing 'n breuk van agt myl-'n paar meter breed-op die plek veroorsaak is.

Spitak het byna totale vernietiging beleef. Die meeste strukture in die stad is goedkoop gebou, of het baksteen- of klipdakke en stort byna almal in duie. In Leninakan, die tweede grootste stad van Armenië met byna 300 000 inwoners, kon ongeveer 80 persent van die geboue nie staan ​​nie. Die groot omvang van vernietiging het die land se reaksievermoë oorweldig. Erger nog, amptenare (destyds beheer deur die Sowjet -regering) het toestemming gegee dat redders en hulpverleners die gebied kan binnegaan. Trouens, tien dae na die aardbewings is alle buitelanders beveel om uit te gaan.

Die redders wat kon inkom, het meer as 'n week gewerk om oorlewendes te vind. Die laaste oorlewende is op 15 Desember onder die puin gehaal. Baie kenners meen dat die dodetal die aanvanklike 60 000 skatting gedeeltelik oorskry het, omdat duisende mense tydens die aardbewing verpletterde beserings opgedoen het. Hierdie slagoffers het dikwels nierprobleme ondervind as gevolg van die trauma en is dood toe plaaslike gesondheidsamptenare nie toegerus was om dit te behandel nie.

Toe die heropbou in die daaropvolgende jare begin, is meer aandag gegee aan die gebruik van geskikte konstruksiemateriaal en die beperking van hoogte op geboue.


Seismo blog

Dikwels is dit nie 'n enkele oomblik nie, maar 'n ketting van gebeure wat 'n seldsame natuurlike gebeurtenis in 'n verwoestende natuurramp verander. Een van die belangrikste voorbeelde van hoeveel verwoesting 'n reeks gebeurtenisse kan veroorsaak, het vandag sestig jaar gelede plaasgevind in die gebied rondom Hebgenmeer naby Yellowstone Nasionale Park in die suidweste van Montana.

Selfs sestig jaar na die aardbewing in die Hebgenmeer, is die fout duidelik in die bos naby Cabin Creek -kamp sigbaar. Die grond op die voorgrond, waar die besoekers staan, het in hierdie normale aardbewing met amper 20 voet geval
Foto: Horst Rademacher

Die Hebgenmeer is 'n idilliese watermassa wat bekend is vir sy forelvis. Die meer is in 1914 geskep toe die Montana Power Company die Madisonrivier met die Hebgendam van betonkern beslag gelê het. Verskeie geologiese breuklyne parallel aan die noordelike oewer van die meer. Hulle is egter as onaktief beskou en hou geen gevaar vir die reservoir in nie. Elke somer stroom honderde sportvissers na die meer, oornag op die tientalle kampeerplekke of die baie hutte en oorde wat langs die oewer van die meer lê. Middel-Augustus is gewoonlik die hoogtepunt van die toeristeseisoen in hierdie gebied, so baie kampeerplekke was vol op die noodlottige nag van 17 Augustus 1959. Daardie nag het 'n reeks natuurlike gebeurtenisse hierdie rustige vakansieplek in 'n verwoestende doodstrik verander waarin amper 30 mense het omgekom.

Die verwoesting het kort voor middernag begin toe besoekers sowel as plaaslike inwoners onbeskof wakker gemaak is deur 'n aardbewing van 7,5. Die erge grondskudding was die eerste slag wat die gebied getref het. Die episentrum van die aardbewing was amper langs die noordelike oewer van die Hebgen -meer onder die Cabin Creek -kampterrein. Hierdie storm blyk 'n normale aardbewing te wees waarin die flank van die fout, wat as 'dormant' beskou is, met byna 20 voet gedaal het. Rotsblokke ter grootte van yskaste wat deur die aardbewing losgeskud is, het op tente en sleepwaens op die kampterrein getuimel en verskeie besoekers is onmiddellik dood. Die skielike grondval langs die fout het ook daartoe gelei dat die snelweg aan die noordelike oewer van die reservoir in die meer geval het, wat die enigste ontsnappingsroete na die ooste geblokkeer het.

Soos geeste steek hierdie blaarlose bome uit die aardbewingsmeer, sestig jaar nadat die meer deur 'n reuse grondstorting geskep is. Die litteken van die glybaan is nog steeds sigbaar op die bergflank aan die agterkant.
Foto: Horst Rademacher

Die skielike afwaartse verskuiwing van die grond het ook 'n gevaarlike newe -effek gehad - die tweede hou wat Hebgenmeer daardie aand getref het. Dit het veroorsaak dat die water in die meer van 12000 hektaar amper 'n halwe dag heen en weer geslinger het. Die oploop van meerwater aan die oewer het mense verdrink wat in nabygeleë hutte en hutte geslaap het. Hierdie staande watergolf staan ​​onder sy Franse naam bekend as 'n seiche en is in baie mere en reservoirs waargeneem. Minstens vier keer dat die meer gekantel het, het water die Hebgendam laat oorloop, wat krake en erosie tot gevolg gehad het. 'N Inspeksie gedurende die volgende paar dae het getoon dat die dam op die punt was om in duie te stort.

Minder as ses kilometer stroomaf van die dam het 'n ander newe -effek van die aardbewing egter 'n baie ernstiger en onmiddellike probleem veroorsaak. Die bewe van die seismiese golwe het die hele flank van 'n berg aan die suidekant van Madisonrivier gemobiliseer. Toe dit in duie stort, het 73 miljoen ton klippe en puin teen die helling afgegly in een van die mees massiewe grondstortings wat ooit in die Verenigde State opgemerk is. Minstens 19 mense is lewendig begrawe in hierdie reuse -glybaan. Die glybaan - die derde slag in die reeks gebeurtenisse daardie noodlottige nag - het ook die snelweg na die weste uitgewis en die honderde kampeerders en inwoners in die gebied van verwoesting effektief vasgekeer.

Terselfdertyd het die glybaan die vloei van die Madisonrivier heeltemal geblokkeer. Die water het dadelik begin ophoop agter die natuurlike dam wat opgestapel is deur tonne glypuin. Alhoewel die weermagkorps van ingenieurs hierdie dam 'n paar weke na die ramp begin oortree het, is die uitvloei tot 'n minimum beperk om nie verwoesting te veroorsaak deur 'n skielike vloed stroomaf te veroorsaak nie. Selfs vandag nog, sestig jaar nadat die ramp plaasgevind het, vul die aardbewingmeer die vallei, met blaarlose spookbome wat uit die waters steek. Hierdie bome vrek nadat hulle oorstroom is deur die beslaglegging van die Madisonrivier.

Vandag kan besoekers vanaf die Earthquake Lake Visitor Center wat deur die Amerikaanse Bosdiens gebou is op die oorblyfsels van die dramatiese grondverskuiwing, die verwoesting sien wat ontstaan ​​het deur die reeks gebeure wat met die aardbewing op 17 Augustus 1959 begin het, en die verhaal leer hoe dit het die gebied vir ewig verander. (hra168)


Inhoud

Die opening na die Persiese Golf is beskryf, maar nie 'n naam gegee nie, in die Periplus van die Erythraese See, 'n seevaartgids van die 1ste eeu:

Aan die boonste punt van hierdie Calaei-eilande is 'n reeks berge genaamd Calon, en daar volg nie ver verder nie, die monding van die Persiese Golf, waar daar baie geduik word vir die pêrelmossel. Links van die seestraat is groot berge genaamd Asabon en regs styg daar in volle aansig nog 'n ronde en hoë berg genaamd Semiramis tussen hulle is die gang oor die seestraat ongeveer seshonderd stadions waarvandaan daardie baie groot en breë see, die Persiese Golf, reik tot in die binneland. Aan die boonste punt van hierdie golf is daar 'n markstad wat volgens die wet Apologus genoem word, naby Charaex Spasini en die Eufraatrivier.

In die 10de -17de eeu nC was die Koninkryk Ormus, wat blykbaar aan die seestraat sy naam gegee het, hier geleë. Geleerdes, historici en taalkundiges ontleen die naam "Ormuz" aan die plaaslike Persiese woord هورمغ Hur-mogh wat dadelpalm beteken. [5] [ twyfelagtig - bespreek ] In die plaaslike dialekte van Hurmoz en Minab word hierdie seestraat nog steeds Hurmogh genoem en het die voormelde betekenis. [ aanhaling nodig ] Die ooreenkoms van hierdie woord met die naam van die Zoroastriese god هرمز Hormoz ('n variant van Ahura Mazda) het tot die algemene opvatting gelei [ aanhaling nodig ] [ neutraliteit word betwis] dat hierdie woorde verwant is.

Jodocus Hondius benoem die Straat Basora fretum ("Straat van Basra") op sy kaart van 1606 van die Ottomaanse Ryk.

Om die risiko van botsing te verminder, volg skepe wat deur die Straat beweeg, 'n Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS): inkomende skepe gebruik een baan, uitgaande skepe 'n ander, elke baan is twee myl breed. Die bane word geskei deur 'n "mediaan" van twee myl breed. [6]

Om die Straat oor te steek, gaan skepe deur die territoriale waters van Iran en Oman onder die bepalings van die deurgangsbepalings van die Verenigde Nasies se Konvensie oor die Seereg. [7] Alhoewel nie alle lande die konvensie bekragtig het nie, [8] aanvaar die meeste lande, insluitend die VSA, [9] hierdie gebruiklike navigasiereëls soos gekodifiseer in die konvensie.

In April 1959 het Iran die wettige status van die seestraat verander deur sy territoriale see tot 12 seemyl (22 km) uit te brei en te verklaar dat hy slegs deurgang deur onskuldige deurgang deur die nuut uitgebreide gebied sou erken. [10] In Julie 1972 brei Oman ook sy gebiedsgebied uit na dekreet tot 12 seemyl (22 km). [10] Teen die middel van 1972 was die Straat van Hormuz dus heeltemal "gesluit" deur die gekombineerde territoriale waters van Iran en Oman. Gedurende die sewentigerjare het nóg Iran of Oman probeer om oorlogskepe deur die seestraat deur te keer, maar in die tagtigerjare het beide lande bewerings aangevoer wat anders was as die gebruiklike (ou) reg. By die bekragtiging van UNCLOS in Augustus 1989 het Oman verklarings ingedien wat die koninklike besluit van 1981 bevestig dat slegs onskuldige deurgang deur die territoriale see toegelaat word. Die verklarings het verder beweer dat vooraf toestemming nodig was voordat buitelandse oorlogskepe deur Omani se territoriale waters kon beweeg. [10] By die ondertekening van die konvensie in Desember 1982, het Iran 'n verklaring ingedien waarin lui "dat slegs state wat deel is van die Wet op die See -konvensie geregtig is om voordeel te trek uit die kontraktuele regte wat daarin geskep word", insluitend "die reg op deurgang deur die seestraat gebruik vir internasionale navigasie ". In Mei 1993 het Iran 'n omvattende wet op maritieme gebiede uitgevaardig, waarvan verskeie bepalings in stryd is met UNCLOS-bepalings, insluitend 'n vereiste dat oorlogskepe, duikbote en kerngedrewe skepe toestemming moet kry voordat hulle onskuldige deurgang deur Iran se territoriale waters kan voer. erken nie een van die bewerings deur Oman en Iran nie en het elkeen daarvan betwis. [10]

Oman het 'n radar -webwerf Link Quality Indicator (LQI) om die TSS in die Straat van Hormuz te monitor. Hierdie webwerf is op 'n klein eiland op die hoogtepunt van die Musandam Governorate. [ aanhaling nodig ]

In 'n verslag van 2007 van die Sentrum vir Strategiese en Internasionale Studies is ook gesê dat 17 miljoen vate daagliks uit die Persiese Golf uitgegaan het, maar dat olie vloei deur die Straat ongeveer 40% van alle olie verhandel het. [11]

Volgens die Amerikaanse energie -inligtingsadministrasie het daar in 2011 gemiddeld 14 tenkwaens per dag uit die Persiese Golf gestroom deur die Straat met 17 miljoen vate (2 700 000 m 3) ru -olie. Daar word gesê dat dit 35% van die wêreld se olie -vervoer in die wêreld verteenwoordig en 20% van die olie wat wêreldwyd verhandel word. Die verslag het gesê dat meer as 85% van hierdie uitvoer van ru -olie na Asiatiese markte gegaan het, met Japan, Indië, Suid -Korea en China die grootste bestemmings. [7] Net in 2018 het 21 miljoen vate per dag deur die seestraat gegaan - dit beteken $ 1,17 miljard se olie per dag, teen die pryse van September 2019. [12]

Tanker War Edit

Die tenkwa -oorlogsfase van die oorlog tussen Iran en Irak het begin toe Irak vroeg in 1984 die olieterminaal en olietenkwaens op die Kharg -eiland van Iran aangeval het. [13] Saddam Hussein se doel met die aanval op Iraanse skeepvaart was onder meer om die Iraniërs aan te wakker om weerwraak te neem met uiterste maatreëls, soos die sluiting van die Straat van Hormuz vir alle maritieme verkeer, en daardeur Amerikaanse ingryping meebring. [13] Iran het die vergeldingsaanvalle beperk tot Irakse skeepvaart, wat die seestraat oopgelaat het. [13]

Operasie Praying Mantis Redigeer

Op 18 April 1988 voer die Amerikaanse vloot 'n eendaagse stryd teen Iraanse magte in en om die seestraat. Die geveg, wat deur die Verenigde State Operasie Praying Mantis genoem is, is begin as weerwraak vir die USS Samuel B. Roberts slaan op 'n myn wat op 14 April 1988 in die kanaal gelê is deur Iran. Amerikaanse troepe het een fregat, een geweerboot en tot ses gewapende snelbote laat sink, asook 'n tweede fregat ernstig beskadig.

Downing of Iran Air 655 Edit

Op 3 Julie 1988 is 290 mense dood toe 'n Iran Air Airbus A300 oor die seestrand deur die Amerikaanse vloot se geleide missielkruiser USS neergeskiet is Vincennes (CG-49) toe dit verkeerdelik as 'n straaljager geïdentifiseer is.

Botsing tussen USS Newport Nuus en tenkwa Mogamigawa Redigeer

Op 8 Januarie 2007 het die kern duikboot USS Newport Nuus, reis onder water, het MV getref Mogamigawa, 'n 300 000 ton Japannese vlag baie groot ru-tenkskip, suid van die seestraat. [14] Daar was geen beserings nie, en geen olie het uit die tenkwa gelek nie.

Spanning in 2008 Wysig

2008 VSA -Iranse vlootgeskil Wysig

'N Reeks vlootafwykings tussen Iranse snelbote en Amerikaanse oorlogskepe in die Straat van Hormuz het plaasgevind in Desember 2007 en Januarie 2008. Amerikaanse amptenare het Iran daarvan beskuldig dat hulle hul vlootskip geteister en uitlok, maar Iraanse amptenare ontken die bewerings. Op 14 Januarie 2008 blyk dit dat die Amerikaanse vlootbeamptes die Pentagon -weergawe van die gebeurtenis van 16 Januarie weerspreek, waarin die Pentagon berig het dat Amerikaanse vaartuie amper op Iran se bote gevuur het. Die vloot se streekbevelvoerder, vise-admiraal Kevin Cosgriff, het gesê dat die Iraniërs "nie skeepsmissiele of torpedo's het nie" en dat hy "nie die postuur van die Amerikaanse vyfde vloot sou kenmerk as bang vir hierdie klein bote nie". [15]

Iraanse verdedigingsbeleid Redigeer

Op 29 Junie 2008 het die bevelvoerder van die Iranse Revolusionêre Garde, Mohammad Ali Jafari, gesê dat as Israel óf die Verenigde State Iran aanval, dit die Straat van Hormuz sal afsluit om verwoesting op die oliemarkte te veroorsaak. Dit volg op meer dubbelsinnige dreigemente van die Iranse minister van olie en ander regeringsamptenare dat 'n aanval op Iran tot onrus in die wêreld se olievoorraad sal lei.

Viseadmiraal Kevin Cosgriff, bevelvoerder van die 5de vloot van die VSA, geleë in Bahrein oorkant die Persiese Golf van Iran, het gewaarsku dat sulke Iraanse optrede as 'n oorlogsdaad beskou sou word, en dat die VSA Iran nie sou toelaat om byna 'n derde van die wêreld se gyselaars te hou nie olietoevoer. [16]

Op 8 Julie 2008 het Ali Shirazi, 'n middel-geestelike assistent van die hoogste leier van Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, deur die nuusnuusagentskap ISNA aangehaal dat hy aan die Revolusionêre Garde gesê het: "Die Sionistiese regime druk persone op die Withuis om Iran aan te val. hulle pleeg so 'n onnoselheid, die versending van Tel Aviv en die VSA in die Persiese Golf sal die eerste doelwitte van Iran wees en dit sal verbrand word. " [17]

Vlootaktiwiteit in 2008 Wysig

In die laaste week van Julie 2008, tydens die operasie Brimstone, [18] het tientalle Amerikaanse en buitelandse vlootskepe gesamentlike oefeninge ondergaan vir moontlike militêre aktiwiteite in die vlak waters voor die kus van Iran.

Vanaf 11 Augustus 2008 was meer as 40 Amerikaanse en geallieerde skepe op pad na die Straat van Hormuz. Een Amerikaanse strydgroep uit Japan sou die twee wat reeds in die Persiese Golf is, aanvul vir 'n totaal van vyf gevegsgroepe, insluitend die duikbote. [19]

Botsing tussen USS Hartford en USS New Orleans Redigeer

Op 20 Maart 2009 het die Amerikaanse vloot Los Angeles-klas duikboot USS Hartford bots met die San Antonio-klas amfibiese vervoerdok USS New Orleans in die seestraat. Die botsing, wat 15 matrose aan boord beseer het Hartford, het 'n brandstoftenk aan boord gebars New Orleans, wat 25 000 Amerikaanse liter (95 m 3) seeldiesel brandstof mors. [20]

Spanning tussen die VSA en Iran in 2011–2012 Wysig

Op 27 Desember 2011 het die Iraanse vise-president, Mohammad-Reza Rahimi, gedreig om die olietoevoer uit die Straat van Hormuz te onderbreek indien ekonomiese sanksies die Iraanse olie-uitvoer beperk of afskakel. [21] 'n Woordvoerder van die Vyfde Vloot van die VSA het in reaksie daarop gesê dat die vloot 'altyd gereed was om kwaadwillige optrede teen te werk', terwyl admiraal Habibollah Sayyari van die Iraanse vloot beweer dat die afsny van oliesendinge 'maklik' sou wees. [22] Ondanks 'n aanvanklike styging van 2% in oliepryse, het oliemarkte uiteindelik nie beduidend gereageer op die Iraanse bedreiging nie, met die olie -ontleder Thorbjoern Bak Jensen van Global Risk Management tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat 'hulle die vloei vir 'n langer tydperk nie kan stop nie as gevolg van die hoeveelheid Amerikaanse hardeware in die omgewing ". [23]

Op 3 Januarie 2012 het Iran gedreig om op te tree as die Amerikaanse vloot 'n vliegdekskip terug in die Persiese Golf skuif. Die Iraanse leërhoof, Ataollah Salehi, het gesê dat die Verenigde State 'n vliegdekskip uit die Persiese Golf geskuif het vanweë Iran se vlootoefeninge, en Iran sal optree as die skip terugkeer. "Iran sal sy waarskuwing nie herhaal nie. Die vyand se draer is weens die oefening na die Golf van Oman verskuif. Ek beveel en beklemtoon die Amerikaanse vervoerder om nie na die Persiese Golf terug te keer nie", het hy gesê. [24]

Die woordvoerder van die Amerikaanse vloot, bevelvoerder Bill Speaks, het vinnig geantwoord dat die ontplooiing van Amerikaanse militêre bates sal voortgaan soos die gewoonte lui: "Die Amerikaanse vloot werk onder internasionale maritieme konvensies om 'n konstante toestand van hoë waaksaamheid te handhaaf om die voortgesette, veilige vloei te verseker van maritieme verkeer in waterweë van kritieke belang vir wêreldwye handel. " [25]

Hoewel vroeëre verklarings van Iran min invloed op die globale oliemarkte gehad het, tesame met die nuwe sanksies, dryf hierdie kommentaar van Iran die ru -termynkontrakte hoër, met meer as 4%. [ aanhaling nodig ] Druk op pryse weerspieël 'n kombinasie van onsekerheid wat verder gedryf word deur die onlangse reaksie van China - die vermindering van olie -aankope van Januarie 2012 by Iran met 50% in vergelyking met die wat in 2011 gemaak is. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die Amerikaanse sanksies kan 'begin byt', aangesien die Iraanse geldeenheid onlangs ongeveer 12% van sy waarde verloor het. Verdere druk op die Iraanse geldeenheid is bygevoeg deur die Franse minister van buitelandse sake, Alain Juppé, wat aangehaal het dat hy meer "streng sanksies" vra en die EU -lande aanspoor om die VSA te volg om die bates van die Iraanse sentrale bank te vries en 'n embargo op olie -uitvoer op te lê. [26]

Op 7 Januarie 2012 het die Britse regering aangekondig dat hulle die Type 45 -vernietiger HMS sou stuur Gewaagd na die Persiese Golf. Gewaagd, wat die hoofskip van haar klas is, is een van die 'mees gevorderde oorlogskepe' ter wêreld en sal sy eerste missie in die Persiese Golf onderneem. [27] Die Britse regering het egter gesê dat hierdie stap lank beplan is, soos Gewaagd sal nog 'n Armilla -patrollie -fregat vervang. [28]

Op 9 Januarie 2012 het die Iraanse minister van verdediging, Ahmad Vahidi, ontken dat Iran ooit beweer het dat dit die Straat van Hormuz sou sluit, en gesê dat "die Islamitiese Republiek Iran die belangrikste veiligheidsvoorsiener in die seestraat is. die Persiese Golf, dan word almal bedreig. ” [29]

Die Iraanse ministerie van buitelandse sake het op 16 Januarie 2012 bevestig dat hy 'n brief van die Verenigde State ontvang het oor die Straat van Hormuz, "via drie verskillende kanale." Die owerhede het oorweeg om te antwoord, hoewel die inhoud van die brief nie bekend gemaak is nie. [30] Die Verenigde State het voorheen hul voorneme aangekondig om Iran te waarsku dat die sluiting van die Straat van Hormuz 'n 'rooi lyn' is wat 'n Amerikaanse reaksie sou veroorsaak. [31] Genl Martin E. Dempsey, die voorsitter van die gesamentlike stafhoofde, het die afgelope naweek gesê dat die Verenigde State 'sal optree en die seestraat weer oopmaak', wat slegs met militêre middele, insluitend myneveërs, bereik kan word. , oorlogskip begeleide en moontlik lugaanvalle. Sekretaris van Verdediging, Leon E. Panetta, het aan troepe in Texas gesê die Verenigde State sal nie toelaat dat Iran die seestraat sluit nie. Tog het Iran voortgegaan om die impak van die sluiting van die Straat op die wêreld se oliemarkte te bespreek, en gesê dat enige ontwrigting van die aanbod 'n skok vir markte sal veroorsaak wat 'geen land' kan bestuur nie. [32]

Teen 23 Januarie is 'n vloot opgerig deur lande wat gekant is teen Iran se dreigemente om die Hormuzstraat te sluit. [33] Hierdie skepe het in die Persiese Golf en Arabiese See voor die kus van Iran gevaar. Die vloot bevat drie Amerikaanse vliegdekskepe (die USS Carl Vinson, die USS Onderneming en USS Abraham Lincoln) en drie vernietigers (USS Momsen, USS Sterett, USS Halsey), sewe Britse oorlogskepe, waaronder die vernietiger HMS Gewaagd en 'n aantal tipe 23 fregatte (HMS Westminster, HMS Argyll, HMS Somerset en HMS St Albans), en 'n Franse oorlogskip, die fregat La Motte-Picquet . [34]

Op 24 Januarie het die spanning verder gestyg nadat die Europese Unie sanksies teen Iraanse olie ingestel het. 'N Senior parlementslid van Iran het gesê dat die Islamitiese Republiek die toegangspunt na die Persiese Golf sal sluit as nuwe sanksies sy olie -uitvoer belemmer. [35] "As daar 'n ontwrigting met betrekking tot die verkoop van Iraanse olie gebeur, sal die Straat van Hormuz beslis gesluit word," het Mohammad Kossari, adjunkhoof van die parlement se komitee vir buitelandse sake en nasionale veiligheid, aan die semi-amptelike Fars News Agency gesê.

2015 beslaglegging op MV Maersk Tigris Redigeer

Op 28 April 2015 het patrolliebote van IRGCN kontak gemaak met die houerskip wat deur die Marshall-eilande gemerk is Maersk Tigris, wat westelik deur die seestraat was, en die skip opdrag gegee het om verder in die Iraanse territoriale waters te gaan, volgens 'n woordvoerder van die Amerikaanse ministerie van verdediging. Toe die skip se kaptein weier, het een van die Iraanse vaartuie skote oor die brug van Maersk Tigris. Die kaptein het gehoor gegee en na Iran se waters naby Larak -eiland gegaan. Die Amerikaanse vloot het vliegtuie en 'n vernietiger, USS, gestuur Farragut, om die situasie te monitor. [36]

Maersk sê hulle het ingestem om 'n Iraanse maatskappy $ 163,000 te betaal weens 'n geskil oor 10 houers wat in 2005 na Dubai vervoer is. Die hofuitspraak het na bewering 'n boete van $ 3,6 miljoen gelas. [37]

2018 dreigemente van die sluiting van die seestraat Redigeer

In Julie 2018 dreig Iran weer om die seestraat te sluit. Met verwysing na dreigende Amerikaanse sanksies nadat die VSA vroeër die jaar aan die JCPOA -ooreenkoms teruggetrek het. [38] Iran se rewolusionêre wagte het berig dat hulle gereed was om die aksie uit te voer indien nodig. [39]

In Augustus 2018 het Iran vir die eerste keer 'n ballistiese missiel in 2018 getoets. Volgens die amptenare het die anti-skip Fateh-110 Mod 3 meer as 100 myl op 'n vlugpad oor die Straat van Hormuz gevlieg na 'n toetsafstand in die Iraanse woestyn. 'Dit was van strand tot strand', het 'n Amerikaanse amptenaar wat die bekendstelling beskryf, gesê, wat net soos die ander anonimiteit versoek het om sensitiewe inligting te bespreek. [40]

2019 dreigemente van die sluiting van die seestraat Redigeer

Op 22 April 2019 beëindig die VSA die olievrystellings, wat sommige van Iran se kliënte toegelaat het om Iraanse olie in te voer, sonder om finansiële boetes te waag as deel van die Amerikaanse ekonomiese sanksies teen Iran. Dit het weereens implikasies in die Straat van Hormuz gehad, aangesien Iranse dreigemente van die sluiting van die Straat in April 2019 voorgehou is. [41]

Aljazeera het generaal-majoor Mohammad Baqeri van die Iraanse weermag aangehaal en gesê: "Ons is nie besig om die Hormuzstraat te sluit nie, maar as die vyandigheid van die vyande toeneem, sal ons dit kan doen". [42] Baqeri word ook aangehaal omdat hy sê: "As ons olie nie verbygaan nie, sal die olie van ander ook nie die Straat van Hormuz verbygaan nie". [41]

2019 VS -Iran se spanning en aanvalle op olietenkskip Redigeer

Op die oggend van 13 Junie 2019 het die olietenkskepe Altair voor en Kokuka moedig Albei is kort voor dagbreek deur ontploffings geruk, en die bemanning van laasgenoemde het gesien hoe 'n vlieënde voorwerp die skip tref wat die bemanning deur die vernietiger USS gered het Bainbridge terwyl die bemanning van die Altair voor is gered deur Iraanse skepe. Die middag het die Amerikaanse minister van buitelandse sake, Mike Pompeo, 'n verklaring uitgereik waarin Iran die aanvalle beskuldig het. Iran ontken die beskuldigings en noem die voorval 'n valse vlagaanval. [43]

In Julie 2019 het 'n Stena Bulk Tanker, Stena Impero, wat onder 'n Britse vlag vaar, is aan boord geneem en deur Iraanse magte gevange geneem. [44] Volgens die woordvoerder van Iran se voograad, Abbas Ali Kadkhodaei, word die beslaglegging as 'n "wedersydse aksie" beskryf. Dit word vermoedelik verwys na die beslaglegging op 'n Iraanse tenkwa, Genade 1, 'n paar dae tevore na Sirië in Gibraltar. [45]

In 2020 het Frankryk ongeveer 600 troepe op see en in die lug onder die CTF474 ontplooi om maritieme handel, streeksake te beskerm en om plaaslike spanning te verlig. Sedert die eerste week van April 2020 kombineer die operasie die Nederlandse fregat Ruyter, die Franse fregat Forbin en een Franse vliegtuig ATLANTIC2 (ATL2). [46]

Iranse militêre aktiwiteit 2020 Redigeer

In Mei 2020 het Iran missiele na een van hul eie skepe gelanseer in 'n vriendelike vuurongeluk en 19 matrose is dood. [47]

2021 Beslaglegging op Iraanse skip Redigeer

Op 4 Januarie 2021 het die Tasnim News Agency berig dat 'n beslag gelê is op 'n olievaartuig met 'n vlag van Suid-Korea wat van Saoedi-Arabië na die Verenigde Arabiese Emirate op pad was omdat dit na bewering oortredings veroorsaak het. Daar word gesê dat die vrag ongeveer 7 000 ton hoeveelheid etanol bevat. Suid -Korea wou nie kommentaar lewer oor die beskuldiging dat dit oliebesoedeling in die Straat van Hormuz veroorsaak het nie. Die skip, Hankuk Chemi, is op pad na die hawe van die VAE Fujairah nadat hy op 2 Januarie 2021 olie uit Jubail, Saoedi-Arabië, gelaai het, volgens die opsporingsdata wat Bloomberg versamel het. [48]

2021 sink van die Iraanse skip Edit

In Junie 2021 het een van Iran se grootste vlootskepe, die Kharg, gesink nadat dit ure lank gebrand het. [49]

Iran het verskeie kere gedreig om die Straat van Hormuz te sluit, veral in 2008, 2012, 2018 en 2019. [50] Tradisioneel was die motiewe van die dreigemente 'n reaksie op Amerikaanse uitlokkinge en 'n aantal ekonomiese sanksies op Iran deur die VSA wat beide die Iraanse oliemark en ander ekonomiese sektore teiken. [51] [52]

Dit word wyd erken [ wezel woorde ] dat selfs 'n gedeeltelike sluiting van die Straat verwoesting op die wêreldwye oliemarkte sal veroorsaak en 'n ernstige bedreiging vir die energiesekerheid inhou. Boonop het 'n sluiting van die Straat ook ernstige gevolge vir Iran self. Ekonomies sou Iran gevolge hê as gevolg van hul eie afhanklikheid van olie -inkomste en handel deur die Straat, soos mediese produkte en voedsel. [53] Wat die internasionale mening betref, sou die dreigement van die sluiting van die Straat Iran se betrekkinge met state wat ekonomies betrokke is, ernstig benadeel. As Iran maritieme verkeer deur die Straat sou blokkeer, sou die skending van internasionale norme en skade aan die wêreldekonomie waarskynlik internasionale steun vir die VSA teen Iran tot gevolg hê. Iran se gebruik van sy territoriale voordele in die Straat van Hormuz is dus meer effektief as 'n bedreiging as as 'n volledige of gedeeltelike sluiting van die Straat eintlik uitgevoer sou word. [54]

Iran het 'n aantal opsies ten opsigte van die dreigemente om die Straat van Hormuz te blokkeer: (1) 'n Volledige sluiting van die Straat, wat 'n geweldige bedreiging vir die globale oliemarkte is, en waarskynlik 'n aansienlike styging in oliepryse sal meebring. (2) Teistering van tenkverkeer en skade aan infrastruktuur, soos gesien is tydens die oorlog tussen Iran en Irak in die 1980's. Weereens, hierdie aksie is 'n risiko vir energiesekerheid en die bestendige vloei van olie deur die seestraat. (3) Gaan voort met dreigemente van die sluiting van die Straat in reaksie op Amerikaanse sanksies, of voer meer vlootoefeninge uit met Iraanse vlootvermoëns. [55]

Millennium Challenge 2002 was 'n groot oorlogswedstryd wat deur die Amerikaanse weermag in 2002 uitgevoer is. Volgens 'n artikel in The Christian Science Monitor in 2012 het dit 'n poging van Iran gesimuleer om die seestraat te sluit. Die aannames en resultate was omstrede. In die artikel klop Iran se strategie die wesenlik beter Amerikaanse weermag. [56]

'N 2008 -artikel in Internasionale veiligheid beweer dat Iran die verkeer in die Straat vir 'n maand kan afsluit of belemmer, en 'n poging van die VSA om dit weer te heropen, sal die konflik waarskynlik toeneem. [57] In 'n latere uitgawe het die tydskrif egter 'n reaksie gepubliseer waarin 'n paar belangrike aannames bevraagteken is en 'n baie korter tydlyn vir heropening voorgestel word. [58]

In Desember 2011 begin die Iranse vloot met 'n tien dae lange oefening in internasionale waters langs die seestraat. Die Iraanse vlootbevelvoerder, admiraal Habibollah Sayyari, het gesê dat die seestraat nie tydens die oefening gesluit sou word nie, maar Iraanse magte kan dit maklik bereik, maar so 'n besluit moet op politieke vlak geneem word. [59] [60]

Kaptein John Kirby, 'n woordvoerder van die Pentagon, word in 'n artikel van Reuters in Desember 2011 aangehaal: "Pogings om spanning in die deel van die wêreld te verhoog, is onbehulpsaam en teenproduktief. Van ons kant voel ons gemaklik oor die vermoëns in die streek. om ons verpligtinge teenoor ons vriende en vennote, sowel as die internasionale gemeenskap, na te kom. " In dieselfde artikel het Suzanne Maloney, 'n Iranse kenner van die Brookings Institution, gesê: "Die verwagting is dat die Amerikaanse weermag enige Iraanse bedreiging relatief vinnig kan hanteer." [61]

Generaal Martin Dempsey, voorsitter van die gesamentlike stafhoofde, het in Januarie 2012 gesê dat Iran "belê het in vermoëns wat in werklikheid vir 'n tydperk die Straat van Hormuz kan blokkeer." Hy het ook gesê: 'Ons het belê in vermoëns om te verseker dat as dit gebeur, ons dit kan verslaan.' [62]

In Mei 2012 het 'n geleerde artikel tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat sowel die UNCLOS as die 1958 -konvensie oor die see sal oortree as Iran sy dreigement om die deurgang deur die Straat van vaartuie soos olietenkskip te blokkeer, nakom en dat die handeling deurloop geen wetlike verband met die oplegging van ekonomiese sanksies nie. Die kusstaat is beperk in sy bevoegdhede om deurgang te voorkom: 1) indien bedreiging of daadwerklike gebruik van geweld teen sy soewereiniteit, sy territoriale integriteit of sy politieke onafhanklikheid of 2) die vaartuig op enige ander manier die beginsels van internasionale reg skend, soos vervat in die Handves van die Verenigde Nasies. [63]

As Iran sy dreigemente om die Straat, een van die strategies belangrikste maritieme verstikkingspunte ter wêreld, heeltemal of gedeeltelik te sluit, sou opvolg, sou die doeltreffendste manier wees deur die gebruik van sy vermoëns teen toegang/ontkenning van gebied. [64] Hierdie vermoëns is bedoel om te verhoed dat gevorderde vloote of ander teenstanders in die Straat en die Persiese Golf opereer, en dit sou veral vir die VSA kommerwekkend wees [65] In 2016 is dit beoordeel dat Iran se militêre sterkte swak was, selfs in vergelyking met plaaslike mededingers. Sedert die Iraanse revolusie in 1979 is 'n aansienlike deel van Iran se militêre uitgawes egter toegewys aan die asimmetriese oorlogvoeringbenadering van sy vlootvermoëns, die anti-toegang/ anti-ontkenningstelsels (A2/ AD). [66] Die gewapende magte van die Islamitiese Republiek van Iran beskik oor 'n aantal van hierdie vermoëns, en binne kort bereik van die Straat. Voorbeelde hiervan is soos volg:

• Kuslugverdediging, langafstand-artillerie en missiele teen skepe. [65]

• 'n Beduidende vloot klein bote en mannekrag beskikbaar, wat gebruik kan word om in groot (swerm) taktieke om groot vaartuie te beweeg. Hierdie klein vaartuie kan gewapen wees met masjiengewere, torpedo's en missiele teen skepe. [64]

• Vaartuigmynleggingsvermoëns. Iran besit en vervaardig 'n verskeidenheid vlootmyne, bv. bodem-vasgemaakte kontakmyne vasgemeer en myne onder-invloed dryf myne en op afstand beheerde myne. [67] In 2010, Iran was estimated to have at least 2,000 moored and drifting contact mines from Soviet, Western and Iranian sources. [64] Iran’s fleet of small vessels, speedboats and submarines can be used for its rapid and covert mine-laying capabilities. [65]

However, Iran’s anti-access/area-denial capabilities are filled with operational difficulties, and the use of these tactics would prompt a military response from the U.S.

The United States Navy and United States Air Force in the Gulf region is far stronger than that of Iran, and while an Iranian attempt to close of the Strait can cause damage, the U.S. is able to defeat it. [68] [65] A key interest to the U.S. in the Persian Gulf, is the free flow of oil and natural gas through the Strait of Hormuz. [69] This is why the U.S relies on a substantial navy and air-force presence, which secures the traffic through the Strait, and are prepared to counter Iranian attempts to blockade it. Most notably, this includes the United States Fifth Fleet based in Bahrain, and the Al Udeid Air Base, housing troops from the United States Air Force [70] [71]

In June 2012, Saudi Arabia reopened the Iraq Pipeline through Saudi Arabia (IPSA), which was confiscated from Iraq in 2001 and travels from Iraq across Saudi Arabia to a Red Sea port. It will have a capacity of 1.65 million barrels per day. [72]

In July 2012, the UAE began using the new Habshan–Fujairah oil pipeline from the Habshan fields in Abu Dhabi to the Fujairah oil terminal on the Gulf of Oman, effectively bypassing the Strait of Hormuz. It has a maximum capacity of around 2 million barrels per day, over three-quarters of the UAE's 2012 production rate. The UAE is also increasing Fujairah's storage and off-loading capacities. [72] [73] The UAE is building the world's largest crude oil storage facility in Fujairah with a capacity of holding 14 million barrels to enhance Fujairah's growth as a global oil and trading hub. [74] The Habshan – Fujairah route secures the UAE's energy security and has the advantage of being a ground oil pipeline transportation which is considered the cheapest form of oil transportation and also reduces insurance costs as oil tankers would no longer enter the Persian Gulf. [75]

In a July 2012 Foreign Policy article, Gal Luft compared Iran and the Strait of Hormuz to the Ottoman Empire and the Dardanelles, a choke point for shipments of Russian grain a century ago. He indicated that tensions involving the Strait of Hormuz are leading those currently dependent on shipments from the Persian Gulf to find alternative shipping capabilities. He stated that Saudi Arabia was considering building new pipelines to Oman and Yemen, and that Iraq might revive the disused Iraq–Syria pipeline to ship crude to the Mediterranean. Luft stated that reducing Hormuz traffic "presents the West with a new opportunity to augment its current Iran containment strategy." [72]


Melting Glaciers Are Wreaking Havoc on Earth’s Crust

You've no doubt by now been inundated with the threat of global sea level rise. At the current estimated rate of one-tenth of an inch each year, sea level rise could cause large swaths of cities like New York, Galveston and Norfolk to disappear underwater in the next 20 years. But a new study out in the Journal of Geophysical Research shows that in places like Juneau, Alaska, the opposite is happening: sea levels are dropping about half an inch every year.

How could this be? The answer lies in a phenomenon of melting glaciers and seesawing weight across the earth called “glacial isostatic adjustment.” You may not know it, but the Last Ice Age is still quietly transforming the Earth’s surface and affecting everything from the length of our days to the topography of our countries.

During the glacier heyday 19,000 years ago, known as the Last Glacial Maximum, the Earth groaned under the weight of heavy ice sheets thousands of feet thick, with names that defy pronunciation: the Laurentide Ice Sheet, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, the Fennoscandian Ice Sheet, and many more. These enormous hunks of frozen water pressed down on the Earth’s surface, displacing crustal rock and causing malleable mantle substance underneath to deform and flow out, changing the Earth’s shape—the same way your bottom makes a depression on a couch if you sit on it long enough. Some estimates suggest that an ice sheet about half a mile thick could cause a depression 900 feet deep—about the  of an 83-story building.

The displaced mantle flows into areas surrounding the ice sheet, causing that land to rise up, the way stuffing inside a couch will bunch up around your weight. These areas, called “forebulges,” can be quite small, but can also reach more than 300 feet high. The Laurentide Ice Sheet, which weighed down most of Canada and the northern United States, for example, caused an uplift in the central to southern parts of the U.S. Elsewhere, ancient glaciers created forebulges around the Amazon delta area that are still visible today even though the ice melted long ago.

As prehistoric ice sheets began to melt around 11,700 years ago, however, all this changed. The surface began to spring back, allowing more space for the mantle to flow back in. That caused land that had previously been weighed down, like Glacier Bay Park in Alaska and the Hudson Bay in Canada, to rise up. The most dramatic examples of uplift are found in places like Russia, Iceland and Scandinavia, where the largest ice sheets existed. In Sweden, for example, scientists have found that the rising land severed an ancient lake called Malaren from the sea, turning it into a freshwater lake.

At the same time, places that were once forebulges are now sinking, since they are no longer being pushed up by nearby ice sheets. For example, as Scotland rebounds, England sinks approximately seven-tenths of an inch into the North Sea each year. Similarly, as Canada rebounds about four inches each decade, the eastern coast of the U.S. sinks at a rate of approximately three-tenths of an inch each year—more than half the rate of current global sea level rise. A study published in 2015 predicted that Washington, D.C. would drop by six or more inches in the next century due to forebulge collapse, which might put the nation’s monuments and military installations at risk.

Some of the most dramatic uplift is found in Iceland. (Martin De Lusenet, Flickr CC BY)

Recent estimates suggest that land in southeast Alaska is rising at a rate of 1.18 inches per year, a rate much faster than previously suspected. Residents already feel the dramatic impacts of this change. On the positive side, some families living on the coast have doubled or tripled their real estate: As coastal glaciers retreat and land once covered by ice undergoes isostatic rebound, lowland areas rise and create "new" land, which can be an unexpected boon for families living along the coast. One family was able to build a nine-hole golf course on land that has only recently popped out of the sea, a New York Times article reported in 2009. Scientists have also tracked the gravitational pull on Russell Island, Alaska, and discovered that it’s been weakening every year as the land moves farther from the Earth’s center.

Uplift will increase the amount of rocky sediment in areas previously covered in water. For example, researchers predict that uplift will cause estuaries in the Alaskan town of Hoonah to dry up, which will increase the amount of red algae in the area, which in turn, could damage the fragile ecosystems there. In addition, some researchers worry that the rapid uplift in Alaska will also change the food ecosystem and livelihood for salmon fishers.

At the same time, there are a lot of new salmon streams opening up in Glacier Bay, says Eran Hood, professor of environmental science at the University of Alaska. “As glaciers are melting and receding, the land cover is changing rapidly,” he says. “A lot of new areas becoming forested. As the ice recedes, salmon is recolonizing. It’s not good or bad, just different.” 

The rate of uplift due to glacial isostatic adjustment around the world Antarctica and Canada are expected to rise the most. (By Erik Ivins, JPL. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons)

Although not as visible, all the changes caused by glacier melt and shifting mantle is also causing dramatic changes to the Earth’s rotation and substances below the earth’s surface.

As our gargantuan glaciers melted, the continents up north lost weight quickly, causing a rapid redistribution of weight. Recent research from NASA scientists show that this causes a phenomenon called “true polar wander” where the lopsided distribution of weight on the Earth causes the planet to tilt on its axis until it finds its balance. Our north and south poles are moving towards the landmasses that are shrinking the fastest as the Earth’s center of rotation shifts. Previously, the North Pole was drifting towards Canada but since 2000, it’s been drifting towards the U.K. and Europe at about four inches per year. Scientists haven’t had to change the actual geographic location of the North Pole yet, but that could change in a few decades.

Redistribution of mass is also slowing down the Earth’s rotation. In 2015, Harvard geophysicist Jerry Mitrovica published a study in Wetenskaplike vooruitgang showing that glacial melt was causing ocean mass to pool around the Earth’s center, slowing down the Earth’s rotation. He likened the phenomenon to a spinning figure skater extending their arms to slow themselves down.

Glacial melt may also be re-awakening dormant earthquakes and volcanoes. Large glaciers suppressed earthquakes, but according to a study published in 2008 in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters, as the Earth rebounds, the downward pressure on the plates is released and shaky pre-existing faults could reactivate. In Southeast Alaska, where uplift is most prevalent, the Pacific plate slides under the North American plate, causing a lot of strain. Researchers say that glaciers had previously quelled that strain, but the rebound is allowing those plates to grind up against each other again. “The burden of the glaciers was keeping smaller earthquakes from releasing tectonic stress,” says Erik Ivins, a geophysicist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Melting glaciers may also make way for earthquakes in the middle of plates. One example of that phenomenon is the series of New Madrid earthquakes that rocked the Midwestern United States in the 1800s. While many earthquakes occur on fault lines where two separate plates slide on top of each other, scientists speculate that the earthquakes in the New Madrid area occurred at a place where hot, molten rock underneath the Earth’s crust once wanted to burst through, but was quelled by the weight of massive ice sheets. Now that the ice sheets have melted, however, the mantle is free to bubble up once again.

Scientists have also found a link between deglaciation and outflows of magma from the Earth, although they’re not sure why one causes the other. In the past five years, Iceland has suffered three major volcanic eruptions, which is unusual for the area. Some studies suggest that the weight of the glaciers suppressed volcanic activity and the recent melting is 20-30 times more likely to trigger volcanic eruptions in places like Iceland and Greenland.

The wandering poles: Until recently earth's axis had been slowly moving toward Canada, as shown in this graphic now, melting ice and other factors are shifting Earth's axis toward Europe. (NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Much of the mystery pertaining to ancient glaciers is still unsolved. Scientists are still trying to create an accurate model of glacial isostatic adjustment, says Richard Snay, the lead author of the most recent study in the Journal of Geophysical Research. “There’s been such software since the early '90s for longitude and latitude measurements but vertical measurements have always been difficult,” says Snay. He and colleagues have developed new equations for measuring isostatic adjustment based off of a complex set of models first published by Dick Peltier, a professor at the University of Toronto. Peltier’s models don’t only take into account mantle viscosity, but also past sea level histories, data from satellites currently orbiting the Earth and even ancient records translated from Babylonian and Chinese texts. “We’re trying to look at glaciation history as a function of time and elasticity of the deep earth,” says Peltier. “The theory continues to be refined. One of the main challenges of this work is describing the effects that are occurring in the earth’s system today, that are occurring as a result of the last Ice Age thousands of years ago.”

Added on to all the unknowns, researchers also don’t know exactly how this prehistoric process will be affected by current patterns of global warming, which is accelerating glacial melt at an unprecedented rate. In Alaska, global warming means less snow in the wintertime, says Hood.

“There is a much more rapid rate of ice loss here compared to many regions of the world,” he says. “The human fingerprint of global warming is just exacerbating issues and increasing the rate of glacial isostatic adjustment.”

And while the effects may vary from city to city—local sea levels may be rising or dropping—it’s clear that the effects are dramatic, wherever they may be. Although many of glaciers have long gone, it’s clear that the weight of their presence still lingers on the Earth, and on our lives.


Earthquakes wreak havoc in Armenia - Dec 07, 1988 - HISTORY.com

TSgt Joe C.

Two earthquakes hit Armenia on this day in 1988, killing 60,000 people and destroying nearly half a million buildings. The two tremors, only minutes apart, were measured at 6.9 and 5.8 in magnitude and were felt as far away as Georgia, Turkey and Iran.

It was 11:41 a.m. when the first, more powerful, earthquake hit three miles from Spitak, a city of about 30,000, and 20 miles northwest of Kirovakan. The epicenter was not far below the surface, which accounts in part for the terrible destruction. Also, only four minutes later, the 5.8-magnitude tremor struck nearby, collapsing buildings that had barely managed to hold during the first quake. An eight-mile rupture of the earth—several feet wide in spots—was later found to have been caused by the quakes.

Spitak experienced near total destruction. Most of the structures in the city were either cheaply constructed or had brick or stone roofs and nearly all collapsed from the shaking. In Leninakan, Armenia’s second largest city with close to 300,000 residents, about 80 percent of the buildings failed to stand. The sheer scale of destruction overwhelmed the country’s ability to respond. Worse still, officials (controlled by the Soviet government at the time) delayed giving permission for rescuers and relief workers to enter the area. In fact, 10 days after the quakes, all foreigners were ordered out.

Those rescuers who were able to enter worked for over a week trying to find survivors. The last survivor was pulled out from under rubble on December 15. Many experts believe that the death toll may have far exceeded the initial 60,000 estimate in part because thousands of people experienced crushing injuries during the quake. These victims often experienced kidney problems following the trauma and died when local health officials were not equipped to treat them.

When rebuilding began in subsequent years, more attention was paid to using appropriate construction materials and putting height limits on buildings.


Seismo Blog

This weekend's rain brought delight to skiers and snowboarders. What fell as droplets in the Bay Area metamorphosed into snow flakes in the Sierra Nevada and its foothills. The snow brought smiles to more faces than just the outdoor enthusiasts'. Officials of the various agencies supplying drinking water to the Bay Area rejoiced in the renewal of the snow pack - and thus also of our water supply. Because most of us drink, shower and cook with melted snow.

Earthquakes pose a major risk to that water supply. The pipelines and tunnels carrying clean snow melt from the Sierras to our houses cross major faults in the East Bay. Even a moderate quake on one of those faults can wreak havoc with these lifelines - and experts predict that your faucets may remain dry for weeks after a really big quake. All the local water agencies are therefore engaged in major seismic upgrades of their infrastructure, be it pipelines, tunnels, or water treatment plants. We all bear the costs for these upgrades through surcharges on our water bills, like the $1.18 per month that is added to the blogger's bill.

Take the example of the East Bay Municipal Utilities District (EBMUD), which supplies water to 1.2 million customers in Alameda and Contra Costa Counties. It spent more than 35 million of its surcharge dollars to upgrade the Claremont Tunnel through the Berkeley Hills. Built in 1929, this 3.4 mi long, 9 ft wide tunnel connects the treatment plant in Orinda with EBMUD's pipe network west of the hills. At peak demand, it can carry 175 million gallons of water per day. The tunnel itself is a sturdy piece of engineering. It would continue to serve well, if it were not for the Hayward fault, which it crosses at an almost right angle 850 ft from its western portal. During the 79 years of the tunnel's existence, the creeping of the fault has caused 13 inches of offset of the reinforced tunnel lining (see red arrows in figure).

Evidence of fault creep in EBMUD's Claremont Water Tunnel. (Picture courtesy of D. Lee, EBMUD.)

However creepy this movement may make the engineers feel, they are even more worried about a major earthquake along this section of the Hayward Fault. The reason: There is a one in three chance that the fault will break in a quake of magnitude 6.7 or greater during the next 30 years (see blog October 10, 2008). In 1994, experts estimated that a quake-caused disruption of the water supply through the Claremont Tunnel would result in economic losses of about $1.9 billion. Read more about how EBMUD made the tunnel safer in the next blog. (hra023)


At 7:55 a.m. Hawaii time, a Japanese dive bomber bearing the red symbol of the Rising Sun of Japan on its wings appears out of the clouds above the island of Oahu. A swarm of 360 Japanese warplanes followed, descending on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor in a ferocious assault. The surprise attack struck a critical blow against the U.S. Pacific fleet and drew the United States irrevocably into World War II.

With diplomatic negotiations with Japan breaking down, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his advisers knew that an imminent Japanese attack was probable, but nothing had been done to increase security at the important naval base at Pearl Harbor. It was Sunday morning, and many military personnel had been given passes to attend religious services off base. At 7:02 a.m., two radar operators spotted large groups of aircraft in flight toward the island from the north, but, with a flight of B-17s expected from the United States at the time, they were told to sound no alarm. Thus, the Japanese air assault came as a devastating surprise to the naval base.

Much of the Pacific fleet was rendered useless: Five of eight battleships, three destroyers, and seven other ships were sunk or severely damaged, and more than 200 aircraft were destroyed. A total of 2,400 Americans were killed and 1,200 were wounded, many while valiantly attempting to repulse the attack. Japan’s losses were some 30 planes, five midget submarines, and fewer than 100 men. Fortunately for the United States, all three Pacific fleet carriers were out at sea on training maneuvers. These giant aircraft carriers would have their revenge against Japan six months later at the Battle of Midway, reversing the tide against the previously invincible Japanese navy in a spectacular victory.

The day after Pearl Harbor was bombed, President Roosevelt appeared before a joint session of Congress and declared, “Yesterday, December 7, 1941–a date which will live in infamy–the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.” After a brief and forceful speech, he asked Congress to approve a resolution recognizing the state of war between the United States and Japan. The Senate voted for war against Japan by 82 to 0, and the House of Representatives approved the resolution by a vote of 388 to 1. The sole dissenter was Representative Jeannette Rankin of Montana, a devout pacifist who had also cast a dissenting vote against the U.S. entrance into World War I. Three days later, Germany and Italy declared war against the United States, and the U.S. government responded in kind.

The American contribution to the successful Allied war effort spanned four long years and cost more than 400,000 American lives.


Scientists From Russia Warned that America is Coming Mega Earthquake

In a new report prepared for Prime Minister Putin by the Institute of Physics of the Earth warned that America in the next two weeks is in danger of catastrophic proportions Earthquake .
Focusing on the U.S., Mexico, Central and South America, and the region along the west coast of the New Madrid zone Fault.

SCIENTISTS have urged government officials to prepare for a terrifying and unprecedented magnitude-9 mega-earthquake that would unleash a deadly tsunami with 30 metre-high waves.

CASCADIA AND THE ‘REALLY BIG ONE’

The Cascadia subduction zone is a region where two tectonic plates are colliding. The Juan de Fuca, a small oceanic plate, is being driven under the North American plate, atop which the continental U.S. sits.

Subduction systems—where one tectonic plate slides over another—are capable of producing the world’s largest known earthquakes. A prime example is the 2011 Tohoku earthquake that rocked Japan.

Cascadia is seismically very quiet compared to other subduction zones—but it’s not completely inactive. Research indicates the fault ruptured in a magnitude 9.0 event in 1700. That’s roughly 30 times more powerful than the largest predicted San Andreas earthquake. Researchers suggest that we are within the roughly 300- to 500-year window during which another large Cascadia event may occur.

The report also warned that further catastrophic earthquakes in Asia and the sub-continent, as “more than likely.”

Increasing concern about the possibility Mega Earthquake, the report says, is based on the growth of subtle electromagnetic signals that were detected in the upper atmosphere of the earth in many parts of the world, with the most intense they appear on the U.S. West Coast and parts of the Midwest.

It is important to note that Russian and British scientists are leaders in predicting earthquakes based on these subtle electromagnetic signals and have joined forces to launch a satellite into space, to better track them.
More ominously, the report is that Russian scientists have confirmed the independent analysis of New Zealand mathematician and long-term weather trends forecaster Ken Ring, who predicted the deadly earthquake in Christchurch (N. Zealand), and this week issued a new warning that the new earthquake should strike around 20 March.

Scientists have declared that it is a matter of “when, not if” a devastating earthquake strikes New Zealand, unleashing a mega-tsunami that could wreak havoc across large parts of the world. Geologists in New Zealand claim the Hikurangi Subduction Zone is one of the world’s biggest faultlines and there is evidence that it could soon set off a quake and a subsequent tsunami. The rupture of the fault line would cause damage and destruction on a scale bigger than the Japanese quake and tsunami of 2011.

Ring explains his methodology for predicting earthquakes in the following way:

“Planets strong influence on the Earth, but indirectly, by influencing the Sun. Some planets are very large. If the sun were basketball, the gas giants Jupiter and Saturn would be the size of a grapefruit, and the Earth on such a scale would be the size of a grain of pepper.

Jupiter and Saturn cause extra tides on the Sun (as in the case of the Earth and the Moon). These large solar tides become solar activity and solar flares.

At the moment, Jupiter and Saturn are on opposite sides of the Sun, and create time tug of war with Earth in the center. It began in September of last year, and will continue until about May.
In September, the Earth was in line with the Sun, Jupiter and Saturn.

That’s why in different places earthquakes above seven points. For example, in Pakistan, there was an earthquake at the same time with the earthquake in Christchurch. This alignment of Jupiter Saturn will continue until about May, and the Earth will be back on line in March. That is why around 20 March to expect accidents, large earthquakes may, when the Moon may be again in the position of the trigger element. “

Referred to in this report, low pressure associated with catastrophic earthquakes in the Midwest, which today continues to suffer from heavy rainfall, and in particular affect on the New Madrid fault in Arkansas, which is only in the last six months has experienced 800 earthquakes.

But the most ominous in this report is a warning that penetrated faults California can survive the most devastating earthquake last decades as new reports for this region show the mass death of millions of fish, just like when whales stranded on the beaches of New Zealand for a few days before the destruction of Christchurch on February 22.

Further clouds the situation and that the sun continues to emit large solar flares.

Interestingly, the U.S. declared the rare exercises with the U.S. military, the CIA, Canadian representatives of the U.S. Treasury and the State Department, the U.S. Agency for International Development, the agency ready response to the threats, and the Red Cross between March 21-25 at Fort Leavenworth, staff Kansas, and if the worst happens, they certainly will be ready.

“Much more than the earthquake, the tsunami would be the dangerous element.

“Waves of up to 30m could be seen and landfall could happen within just seven minutes notice.”

The preparedness plan is coordinating between scientists, government officials, emergency services, health providers, business experts and NFO leaders.

Martha Savage, professor of geophysics at Victoria University, said the longer the wait, the bigger the quake.

In summary, the report says that it is not to establish a solid and reliable prediction mechanism, which would have been recognized by the scientific community, it is worth noting too big to ignore abnormal number of matches, leading to catastrophic mega-earthquakes occurring around the world, and which ignored until then, until they pose a direct threat.

Geologists have recently been able to deploy hundreds of GPS monitors across Cascadia to record the subtle ground deformations that result from the plates’ inability to slide past each other. Just like historic seismicity, plate locking is more common in the northern and southern parts of Cascadia.

Geologists are also now able to observe difficult-to-detect seismic rumblings known as tremor. These events occur over the time span of several minutes up to weeks, taking much longer than a typical earthquake. They don’t cause large ground motions even though they can release significant amounts of energy. Researchers have only discovered these signals in the last 15 years, but permanent seismic stations have helped build a robust catalog of events. Tremor, too, seems to be more concentrated along the northern and southern parts of the fault.

Our results provide new insights into how this subduction zone, and possibly others, behaves over geologic time frames of millions of years. Unfortunately our results can’t predict when the next large Cascadia megathrust earthquake will occur. This will require more research and dense active monitoring of the subduction zone, both onshore and offshore, using seismic and GPS-like stations to capture short-term phenomena.

Our work does suggest that a large event is more likely to start in either the northern or southern sections of the fault, where the plates are more fully locked, and gives a possible reason for why that may be the case.

It remains important for the public and policymakers to stay informed about the potential risk involved in cohabiting with a subduction zone fault and to support programs such as Earthquake Early Warning that seek to expand our monitoring capabilities and mitigate loss in the event of a large rupture.

A grand encyclopedia of country Carnivore’s Bible , weather wisdom, country remedies and herbal cures, cleaning solutions, pest purges, firewood essentials, adobe making and bricklaying, leather working, plant dyes, farm foods, natural teas and tonics, granola, bread making, beer brewing and winemaking, jams and jellies, canning and preserving, sausage making and meat smoking, drying foods, down-home toys, papermaking, candle crafting, homemade soaps and shampoos, butter and cheese making, fishing and hunting secrets, and much more. Carnivore’s Bible : Traditional Skills for Simple Living


Whence and Why the Earthquake in Turkey?

"Weep with those who weep" (Romans 12:15). When love has wept and worked, it must have some answers. Not all the answers, but some.

No earthquakes in the Bible are attributed to Satan. Many are attributed to God (2 Samuel 22:8 Isaiah 13:13 24:18–20 29:6 Psalm 60:2 Nahum 1:5–6 Revelation 6:12 8:5 11:13f 16:18). This is because God is Lord of heaven and earth. "He commands even the winds and the water, and they obey Him" (Luke 8:25). "He sends forth His command to the earth. . . . He gives snow like wool He scatters the frost like ashes. He casts forth His ice as fragments who can stand before His cold? . . . He causes His wind to blow and the waters to flow" (Psalm 147:15–18). "He looks at the earth, and it trembles He touches the mountains, and they smoke" (Psalm 104:32). "[He] shakes the earth out of its place, and its pillars tremble" (Job 9:6). And if the devils try to intrude on his control, "He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him" (Mark 1:27).

Earthquakes are ultimately from God. Nature does not have a will of its own. And God owes Satan no freedom. What havoc demons wreak, they wreak with God's permission. That's the point of Job 1–2 and Luke 22:31–32. God does nothing without an infinitely wise and good purpose. "He also is wise and will bring disaster" (Isaiah 31:2). "The LORD is good" (Psalm 100:5). Therefore, God had good and all-wise purposes for the heart-rending tragedy in Turkey that took thousands of lives on August 16, 1999.

Indeed, he had hundreds of thousands of purposes, most of which will remain hidden to us until we are able to grasp them at the end of the age. "How unsearchable are His judgments and unfathomable His ways! For who has known the mind of the Lord?" (Romans 11:33–34). "The secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our sons forever" (Deuteronomy 29:29).

Yet there are possible purposes revealed in the Bible that we may pray will come to pass.

  1. The end-time earthquakes in the book of Revelation (Revelation 6:12 8:5 11:13f 16:18) are meant as calls to repentance to warn people who deny Jesus Christ that a day is coming when unbelievers will cry to the mountains and the rocks, "Fall on us and hide us from the presence of Him who sits on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb" (Revelation 6:16).
  2. The end-time earthquakes in Matthew 24:7–8 are meant to be interpreted as "the beginning of the birth pangs." That is, they are a wake-up call to this oblivious world that God's kingdom will soon be born so be alert and prepare to meet Jesus Christ.
  3. God's unilateral taking of thousands of lives is a loud declaration that "The Lord gave and the Lord has taken away" (Job 1:21). The message for all the world is that life is a loan from God (Luke 12:20) and belongs to him. He creates it and gives it and takes it according to his own will and owes us nothing. He has a right to children (2 Samuel 12:15) and to the aged (Luke 2:29). It is a great gift to learn this truth and dedicate our lives to their true owner rather than defraud him till it is too late.
  4. The power felt in an earthquake reveals the fearful magnificence of God. This is a great gift since "the fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom" (Psalm 111:10). Most of the world does not fear the Lord and therefore lacks saving wisdom.
  5. When the earth shakes under your feet there is a dramatic sense that there is no place to flee. In most disasters, the earth is the one thing that stands firm when wind and flood are raging. But where do you turn when the earth itself is unsafe? Answer: God.

May the Lord fulfill two other purposes for this painful catastrophe. 1) That Christians repent of worldliness. "I tell you, no, but unless you repent, you will all likewise perish" (Luke 13:3). 2) That Christians, around the world, step forward with extraordinary, sacrificial love to show more clearly the mercy of Christ who laid down his life in the midst of the Father's judgment.


Earthquake warning apps that can help you save lives

Such apps help people to keep their emergency kits, food and other supplies ready in advance.

SNS Web | New Delhi | June 11, 2020 9:58 pm

Seconds before an earthquake hits any part of the country, people residing in the region or in the nearby areas can now get a warning on their smartphones to duck and cover.

Unlike other natural calamities, earthquake is the one that takes place instantly and can wreak havoc, but of course, that depends on the magnitude as well as the intensity of the shock waves. But in all circumstances, the outcome can lead to disruptions to electricity and water supply.

Because of the advancement of technology, nowadays it is easier for people to use mobile apps to get advance notification about the earthquake taking place or about to take place in their nearby region. Such apps help people to keep their emergency kits, food and other supplies ready in advance.

Here we have listed a few such mobile apps. Pick the one that suits you the most.

1. Earthquake Network
This is an all-in-one mobile app that sends an alert to the users and keeps them updated about the nearby earthquake. The app gives you information on- Real-time detection, Epicenter estimation, Peak Ground acceleration and Magnitude estimation.
The free version of the app gives users access to earthquake history guide along with other features. Whereas premium users will get access to few additional features like earthquake notifications and in case of emergencies users can also access the chat room and exchange information during the earthquake.

2. Earthquake Pro
The app allows users to see earthquakes from around the globe in the recent past. Users can search and gain knowledge from all listed earthquakes that took place in the recent past.

It also gives information about the shape of tectonic plates. Along with this, the app alert users before the earthquake arrives with all the data including location, distance and magnitude of the earthquake.

This app comes with a built-in seismograph.

3. Earthquakes Tracker
Like its peers, this app also gives notifications and alerts about the earthquakes taking place in close proximity.

Users can also find detailed information about the earthquakes that took place in the past.

4. My Earthquake Alerts
Apart from receiving notifications and alerts, users can customise their alerts for their area.

This app also provides the exact location, depth and distance of the earthquake from your location.


Mudslides wreak havoc in California

On the 9th of January 2018 a destructive mudslide, in Santa Barbara and Ventura County, California, hit the community of Montecito the hardest. Houses and businesses were literally swept off of their foundations. Days later the death toll had risen to 20 with scores more injured.

100 homes were destroyed and 300 more were damaged. Vehicles were among the losses too.

Freeways and hotels have been closed indefinitely as the community faces an enormous cleanup. Power had been cut off to some areas, and drinkable tap water was not available. Search and rescue teams were very active as people remained missing.

California has just undergone a destructive, dry season that produced many wildfires these were followed by heavy rains. This dangerous cocktail of events is often followed by mudslides.

With climate change a serious threat, some are thinking California could continue to experience such disasters. Professor of Geography at UCLA, Glen MacDonald, spoke to CBC News about what could become California’s “new normal”.

“What is happening is climate change. We have been experiencing temperatures warming year after year now – this is exacerbating the contrast between our very dry summers and our wet winters. It’s essentially priming the pump for big fires, which are then followed by these landslide events. The new normal? It’s sort of like the normal that we had in the past, but on steroids.”

In 2014, California’s San Bernardino County experienced a mudslide that displaced 2,500 people and left one dead. California has become accustomed to possible mudslides, but it was the unprecedented torrential downpour that caused the latest mudslide.

Engineering around the climate

Demolition workers have begun the process of breaking down boulders that came off of the mountain during the mudslide of the 9th of January.

University Professor Laura Sullivan-Green who works in the Civil and Environmental Engineering department at San Jose University explained how the wildfires in California had a ‘direct impact’ on the mudslide.

Talking to Fox News’ KTVU, she said that California’s Thomas Fire had caused 280-thousand acres of scorched earth. The burned vegetation, mixed with the heavy rains, made the hillsides of Montecito a prime candidate for flash flooding and a mudslide.

The consensus from most experts is that the woes experienced in California are because of civil engineering practices of old. Despite the dangers, even back then, construction in California continued. The situation is similar to that in Mexico City: arguably humans should never have inhabited areas prone to natural disaster.

Mexico City was hit by an earthquake last year, highlighting its unfortunate geographic positioning. This capital city is likely to experience violent earthquakes as it is was built on an ancient lake bed. For more on Mexico City, read our report from last year.

Sullivan-Green explains that other areas of California may also be in danger of mudslides, especially if they too have suffered the triggers experienced by Montecito. Sy sê:

“Making sure that water can drain easily, and sandbagging to prevent erosion are, really, the key things right now. It can take up to two years for the soil to recover significant vegetation, as well as reduce the water-repelling chemical change.”

Encouragingly, research is being conducted at the University of Arkansas. In 2014, a team of researchers were given US$1.4 million to develop a system of remote-sensing technologies. These were designed specifically to help the relevant authorities predict a mudslide, rockslide or similar event in the area of California.

Richard Coffman, the assistant professor of civil engineering, and head of the project said:

“The hazard to infrastructure resulting from wildfires includes the initial damage associated with the wildfire and then secondary effects from the wildfire denuding the soil. To combat these hazards, transport officials typically rely on various maps that document burn severity, soil composition, geology and topography - but these tools do not offer the high spatial and temporal resolution of remote-sensing data.”

California has suffered, but the researchers will benefit as they have yet more data to add to their current studies. It will also assist those civil engineers hard at work figuring out how to protect vital infrastructure in areas where mudslides may simply be unavoidable.


Kyk die video: Khor Virap Monastery Armenië (Januarie 2022).