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Algemene Sterlingprys - Geskiedenis

Algemene Sterlingprys - Geskiedenis


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Algemene Sterling -prys

Sterling Price, gebore in Prince Edward County, VA, 20 September 1809, het Hampton-Sydney College 1826-27 bygewoon en studeer regte onder Creed Taylor. Hy was die verteenwoordiger van Chairton County in die staatswetgewer 1836-38 en 1840-4, en is verkies tot speaker van die Huis in 1840. Price is in 1844 tot die kongres verkies, maar bedank in 1846 om die Mexikaanse oorlog as kolonel te betree. Hy word later 'n brigadier -generaal en dien as militêre goewerneur van Chihuahua. General Price verhuis daarna na Missouri en word verkies tot goewerneur in 1852. Hy was president van die Staatskonvensie van 1860 en was in bevel van die staatsmilisie. Nadat hy 5000 troepe versamel het, verenig General Price hom met die magte van die Konfederale generaal McCulloch en wen die slag van Wilson's Creek op 10 Augustus 1861. Nadat hy in September 3000 federale troepe by Lexington ingeneem het, het Price teruggetrek na Arkansas en amptelik by die Konfederale Weermag aangesluit in April 1862. Hy het in 1862 in Corinth, mej., terugslae beleef en in 1864 in Helena, Ark., voordat hy Unie -generaal Steele by Red River verslaan het. Hy het in 1864 na Texas teruggetrek en in 1865 na die nederlaag van die Konfederasie het hy na Mexiko ontsnap. Na die ineenstorting van Maximilian se ryk, keer General Price terug na Missouri, waar hy op 29 September 1867 sterf.

(SwRam: t. 633; ​​1. 182 '; b. 30'; dph. 9'3 "; a. 4 9" D.r.)

General Sterling Price (ook Sterling Price en General Price genoem) was 'n houtstoomboot wat in 1856 as Laurent Millaudon in Cincinnati, Ohio, gebou is. Sy is opgeneem in die Konfederale diens, herdoop tot Generaal Sterling Price, omskep in 'n ram en sien aksie in die verdediging van Fort Pillow en Memphis, Tenn. deur vlootmagte onder vlagoffisier CH Davis. Sy word kort na die geveg deur die weermag grootgemaak, en word op 16 Junie 1862 onder diens van Lt. Die ram is vroeër deur die kwartiermeester H. A. Wise in Kaïro, 30 September 1862, na die vloot oorgeplaas. Alhoewel sy destyds die naam General Price gekry het, word daar steeds na haar verwys as General Sterling Price.

By voltooiing van herstelwerk en omskakeling in Kaïro op 11 Maart 1863, het generaal Sterling Price by die Mississippi -eskader aan diens gegaan. Admiraal Porter het destyds probeer om die vlak en toegegroeide Steele's Bayou te vervoer om Vicksburg van agter af te sny, en generaal Sterling Price het by die ekspedisie aangesluit. Na 'n paar dae se stadige en moeilike vordering, geteister deur die konfederale troepe, is die kanonbote genoodsaak om op 22 Maart 1863 terug te trek. Generaal Sterling Price jaag verby die formidabele Konfederale verdediging by Vicksburg met admiraal Porter se flottielie 17 April 1863. Barsel aan stuurboord van Lafayette tydens die gewaagde hardloop het sy min skade opgedoen. Porter was toe in staat om Grand Gulf, Miss. Die Suide is gedwing om hierdie belangrike punt in die rivier te ontruim.

Generaal Sterling Price vertrek op 3 Mei uit die Grand Gulf na die Rooi Rivier en neem deel aan die verowering van Alexandria, La., En die gedeeltelike vernietiging van Fort De Russy, La., 3 tot 17 Mei. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het generaal Sterling Price kortliks as vlagskip van admiraal Porter opgetree en op 10 Mei is sy op 'n verkenning na die B; ack -rivier gestuur, waar sy sterk Konfederale batterye in Harrisonburg, La, ingeskakel het.

Namate die druk van die Unie teen Vicksburg toegeneem het, het generaal Sterling Price 'n groot rol gespeel in die voortgesette bombardement van die stad en die skutondersteuning van die troepe van die Unie totdat die Koningskap se rotsvesting uiteindelik 4 Julie oorgegee het. Sy was op 16 Julie in Memphis en vertrek daarheen na Kaïro en broodnodige herstelwerk, wat eers omstreeks 19 November voltooi is.

Generaal Sterling Price sluit weer by die eskader in Memphis 2 Desember 1863 aan en word gou deel van die beplande ekspedisie van Admiraal Porter langs die Rooi Rivier. Voordat sy by Porter aangesluit het, het sy per ongeluk Conestoga 8 Maart 1864 gestamp ná 'n verwarring in fluitseine, wat veroorsaak het dat laasgenoemde skip vinnig sink, 'n totale verlies. Saam met die Red River -ekspedisie tot in Alexandrië het generaal Sterling Price op 6 April teruggekeer na die monding van die konvooi -vervoer.

Daarna het sy 'n gereelde vaarstasie by die onderste Mississippirivier ingeneem, vervoer beskerm, verkenningspartye laat beland en die rivier vry gehou van die Konfederale guerrillas. Terwyl sy op hierdie diens was, het sy 'n suidelike battery by Tunica Bend, La., 19 Mei, ingeroep en dit genoodsaak om terug te trek en 'n kuspartytjie geland wat die Konfederale hoofkwartier verbrand het. Generaal Sterling Price het haar patrolliepligte tussen New Orleans en Donaldsonville La voortgesit tot aan die einde van die oorlog. Sy het op 24 Julie 1865 te Mound City, Ill., Buite werking gestel en is op 3 Oktober 1865 aan W. Harrison verkoop.


Algemene Sterling -prys

Gebore in Prince Edward County, Virginia
11 September 1809
Woon in Chariton County Missouri
1831-1865
Spreker
Van die Huis van Verteenwoordigers
Van die algemene vergadering van Missouri
1840-1844
Verkies op kongres 1844
Het aan oorlog met Mexiko deelgeneem
1846-1848
Styg uit die rang van kolonel
Aan dié van brigadier -generaal
Voorsitter van die Konvensie van 1861
Generaal -majoor in bevel
Van Missouri State Troops 1861-1862
Oorlede in St. Louis, Missouri
29 September 1867

1915 opgerig deur The State of Missouri en die United Daughters of the Confederacy.

Onderwerpe en reekse. Hierdie gedenkteken word gelys in hierdie onderwerplyste: Regering en politiek en stieroorlog, Amerikaanse burger. Boonop is dit opgeneem in die reeks United Daughters of the Confederacy.

Ligging. 39 & deg 26.083 ′ N, 92 & deg 56.203 ′ W. Marker is in Keytesville, Missouri, in Chariton County. Memorial kan bereik word vanaf West Bridge Street oos van North Park Street, aan die linkerkant wanneer u oos ry. Merk en monument is in Keytesville's Price Park geleë. Raak vir kaart. Marker is by of naby hierdie posadres: 198 West Bridge Street, Keytesville MO 65261, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 2 ander merkers is binne 8 myl van hierdie merker, gemeet soos die kraai vlieg.

Met betrekking tot General Sterling Price. General Price is die naamgenoot van John Wayne se oranje tabby kat in die flieks True Grit en Haan Cogburn.

Sien ook. . .
1. Sterlingprys (Wikipedia). Price was aanvanklik 'n sterk voorstander van die Unie. Toe die state van die diepe suide die konfederale state van Amerika afskei en vorm, het Price die afskeiding deur Missouri gekant. Hy is verkies tot voorsittende beampte van die Missouri State Convention op 28 Februarie 1861, wat gestem het dat die staat die Unie verlaat. Die situasie het egter aansienlik verander toe pro-Union Francis Preston Blair, Jr. en kapt. Nathaniel Lyon die staatsmilisie se Camp Jackson in St. Woedend oor hierdie virtuele oorlogsverklaring teen die staat, het Price sy steun aan die afskeidingslede verleen. (Ingesit op 11 April 2019 deur Cosmos Mariner van Cape Canaveral, Florida.)

2. Sterling Price (1809 – 1867). Sterling Price is verkies tot die 11de goewerneur van Missouri in 1852. Nadat hy as spreker van die Missouri -huis gedien het, het hy 'n Amerikaanse kongreslid geword en daarna tydens die Burgeroorlog as kolonel en daarna brigadier -generaal by die Konfederasie aangesluit. Price het sy loopbaan as soldaat beëindig en

het tot aan sy dood getrou gebly aan die suidelike saak. (Ingesit op 11 April 2019 deur Cosmos Mariner van Cape Canaveral, Florida.)

3. Algemene Sterling Price, (beeldhouwerk). Tydens die Burgeroorlog het hy die Unie bevoordeel, maar het hom weens 'n verskeidenheid omstandighede verplig gevoel om die Konfederasie te ondersteun. Hy word in April 1862 Konfederale Generaal en neem deel aan 'n aantal belangrike gevegte. 'N Wetsontwerp is in 1911 deur die Missouri -staatswetgewer goedgekeur wat $ 5,000 vir die oprigting van 'n monument ter herinnering aan General Price terugeis. Sommige van hierdie geld dateer uit 'n salarisverhoging. General Price wou nie aanvaar toe hy in 1852 goewerneur was nie. (Ingesit op 11 April 2019 deur Cosmos Mariner van Cape Canaveral, Florida.)


Inhoud

Sterling "Old Pap" Price is gebore naby Farmville, in Prince Edward County, Virginia, uit 'n familie van Walliese oorsprong. Sy ma was Elizabeth Williamson, en sy pa was Pugh Price, wie se voorvader John Price Ώ ] in 1584 in Brecknock, Wallis, gebore is en hom in die Virginia -kolonie gevestig het. Price het die Hampden-Sydney College in 1826 en 1827 bygewoon, en#912 ], waar hy regte studeer en by die hof naby sy huis gewerk het. Hy is opgeneem in die advokaat van Virginia en het 'n regspraktyk gevestig.

In die herfs van 1831 verhuis Price en sy gesin na Fayette, Missouri. 'N Jaar later verhuis hy na Keytesville, Missouri, waar hy 'n hotel en handel dryf. Op 14 Mei 1833 trou Price met Martha Head van Randolph County, Missouri. Hulle het sewe kinders, waarvan vyf tot volwassenheid oorleef het Α ] Edwin Williamson, Herber, Celsus, Martha Sterling en Quintus.

Tydens die Mormoonse Oorlog van 1838 het Price gedien as lid van 'n afvaardiging wat vanuit Chariton County, Missouri, gestuur is om gerapporteerde versteurings tussen die Heiliges van die Laaste Dae en die anti-Mormoonse skares in die westelike deel van die staat te ondersoek. Sy verslag was gunstig vir die Mormone, en verklaar dat hulle na sy mening nie skuldig was aan die aanklagte wat hul vyande teen hulle opgelê het nie. Β ] Na die kapitulasie van die Mormoonse in November 1838, is Price deur die goewerneur van Missouri, Lilburn Boggs, saam met 'n groep mans aan Caldwell County gelas om die heiliges te beskerm teen verdere verdorwenheid ná hul oorgawe. Γ ] Hy is verkies tot die Missouri State House of Representatives vanaf 1836 󈞒, en weer vanaf 1840 󈞘, en is gekies as die speaker. Daarna word hy verkies as 'n demokraat vir die 29ste Amerikaanse kongres, wat van 4 Maart 1845 tot 12 Augustus 1846 dien, toe hy uit die huis bedank om aan die Mexikaanse-Amerikaanse oorlog deel te neem. ΐ ]


Sterlingprys (1809–1867)

Sterling Price was 'n boer, politikus en soldaat wat tydens die Burgeroorlog as generaal van Missouri in Arkansas gedien het. Hy beveel veral die Konfederale Departement van Arkansas tydens die val van Little Rock (Pulaski County) aan die federale magte en tydens die Camden -ekspedisie.

Price, gebore in Prince Edward County, Virginia, op 20 September 1809, in 'n welgestelde plantgesin, het Price 'n jaar by die Hampton-Sydney College gestudeer en daarna regte studeer. Sterling se ouers, Pugh Price en Elizabeth (Williamson) Price, het drie ander seuns en 'n dogter gehad. Rondom 1831 vergesel Price sy ouers weswaarts na Missouri. Daar trou hy op 14 Mei 1833 met Martha Head en was hy aktief in 'n aantal ondernemings, veral tabakboerdery. Price, wat naby Keytesville in Chariton County woon, dien ses jaar lank in die Missouri -staatswetgewer, waaronder vier as die speaker. In 1844 is Price verkies tot die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers.

In Augustus 1846 bedank Price hom uit die kongres en neem bevel oor 'n regiment uit Missouri om aan die Mexikaanse oorlog deel te neem. Price was toegewys aan Santa Fe, New Mexico, en was die bevelvoerder van die Amerikaanse magte in die gebied. Nadat hy 'n opstand deur die plaaslike Pueblo -Indiane onderdruk het, het hy 'n inval in Mexiko self gelei en die stad Chihuahua verower.

Terug na Missouri as 'n brigadier -generaal, het Price sy oorlogsrekord en 'n skeuring in die Demokratiese Party van die staat in 1853 neergelê. Sy administrasie word gekenmerk deur 'n gebrek aan betrokkenheid by die grensoorlog wat met Kansas uitgebreek het oor die kwessie van slawerny. . Hy verlaat sy amp in 1857 en keer terug na sy plantasie en dien as bankkommissaris. Hy is verkies as 'n voorwaardelike vakbondlid vir die Sessionion Convention van 1861 en was die voorsitter van die president. Toe die oorlog uitbreek, was Price getuie van 'n voorval waarin federale troepe op 'n skare burgerlikes losgebrand het wat betoog het teen die arrestasie van pro-suidelike milisie. Hy is gou gekies as die bevelvoerder van die Missouri State Guard met die rang van generaal -majoor.

Op 10 Augustus 1861 het die Slag van Wilson's Creek, Missouri, Price se Missouri State Guard en die Konfederale magte, insluitend eenhede uit Arkansas onder bevel van brigadier -generaal Benjamin McCulloch, die leër van die Unie ontmoet en sy opmars na die suidweste van Missouri teruggedruk. Later die somer het Price sy troepe na Lexington, Missouri, gelei, waar hulle die Unie -garnisoen wat daar gestasioneer was, gevange geneem het.

Gedurende die winter van 1861-1862 het baie van die bewaarders van Missouri na die Konfederale weermag oorgeplaas, en twee Missouri -brigades is gevorm. Vroeg in 1862 het die federale weermag Price en sy manne gedwing om hulle uit Missouri te onttrek en Arkansas binne te gaan. Op 7–8 Maart het die Konfederale weermag, insluitend die Missouri -eenhede en Price, die leër van die Unie by die Slag van Pea Ridge betrek. Na die geveg is die leër van generaal -majoor Earl Van Dorn van Arkansas oor die Mississippirivier oorgeplaas en na Corinth, Mississippi, verdedig. Price het intussen 'n kommissie as hoofgeneraal in die Konfederale weermag aanvaar.

Price, wat deelgeneem het aan die gevegte by Iuka en Corinth, Mississippi, het vroeg in 1863 na die Konfederale hoofstad Richmond, Virginia, gereis. Mississippi. In plaas daarvan keer Price terug na die Trans-Mississippi-teater sonder sy manne.

Price het 'n deel van die Konfederale aanval op Helena (Phillips County) op 4 Julie 1863 gelei, wat afgeweer is. As gevolg van die moeilikheid van die terrein en die verkeerde interpretasie van bevele, het Price sy aanval goed begin nadat ander konfederate bevelvoerders hul manne vorentoe gestuur het. Na 'n uitgerekte geveg kon Price sy doelwit van die federale artillerieposisie bo Graveyard Hill bereik, maar die gewere is gespits en die konfederate magte moes terugtrek. Na die geveg het die bevel van die hele leër na Price oorgegaan, en die leër het teruggekeer na Little Rock om voor te berei op 'n Unie -aanval, wat aan die einde van die somer gekom het. Price is gedwing om die hoofstad te laat vaar met slegs 'n minimum van weerstand. Die Konfederate trek terug na Arkadelphia (Clark County) en uiteindelik Washington (Hempstead County) en Camden (Ouachita County).

Op 16 Maart 1864 kry Price die bevel van die Konfederale Distrik van Arkansas om saam te val met sy veldtaak as bevelvoerder van die troepe in die gebied. So verdedig hy die Konfederale hoofstad van Arkansas in Washington tydens die Camden -ekspedisie later die maand. Van alle beskikbare infanterieondersteuning was Price in staat om Washington te verdedig, maar die federale leër onder bevel van generaal -majoor Frederick Steele kon na die voorheen versterkte stad Camden trek. Price het sy magte beveel om 'n toevoerstrein van die Unie naby Poison Spring aan te val. Na die gevolglike oorwinning is Price vervang deur generaal Edmund Kirby Smith, bevelvoerder van die Konfederale Departement Trans-Mississippi. By die verlowing by Jenkins 'Ferry het Price 'n afdeling van Arkansas en 'n afdeling van Missouri op die veld gelei, maar hulle is afgeweer.

Terwyl Price nie 'n uitstekende prestasie tydens die veldtog gelewer het nie, dien hy wel voldoende om toestemming te kry om 'n inval in Missouri te voer om manne bymekaar te maak, voorraad aan te skaf en federale kommunikasie te ontwrig met die uiteindelike doel om St. Einde September 1864 het sy leër van die Missouri- en Arkansas -troepe weer in Missouri ingegaan en verskeie gevegte geveg, maar was nie in staat om St. Price se leër is aangeval in Westport, Missouri, waar die grootste geveg in die Trans-Mississippi-teater geëindig het met 'n Konfederale nederlaag. Deur sy terugtog voort te sit, is Price weer verslaan in Mine Creek, Kansas. Na talle klein verbintenisse en die byna vernietiging van sy leër, keer Price terug na Arkansas en vestig hy sy hoofkwartier in Laynesport (Little River County). Price het tydens die oorlog nie weer aktief in die veld gedien nie.

Met die einde van die oorlog het Price nie oorgegee nie, maar eerder 'n paar van sy manne na Mexiko gelei, waar hulle van plan was om by keiser Maximilian aan te sluit. Nadat hy 'n paar jaar in Mexiko gewoon het, keer hy en sy gesin terug na St. Louis, waar hy op 29 September 1867 sterf. Price word begrawe in die Bellefontaine -begraafplaas.

Vir meer inligting:
Castel, Albert. Generaal Sterling Price en die burgeroorlog in die Weste. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1968.

Laus, Mark A. The Collapse of Price's Raid: The Begin of the End in Civil War Missouri. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2015.

———. Price se verlore veldtog: die inval van Missouri in 1864. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2011.

Rea, Ralph. Sterling Price: The Lee of the West. Little Rock: Pioneer Press, 1959.

Reynolds, Thomas. General Sterling Price en die Konfederasie. St. Louis: Missouri History Museum Press, 2009.

Shalhope, Robert. Sterling Price: Portret van 'n Suidlander. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1971.

Sinsi, Kyle S. The Last Hurray: Sterling Price se Missouri -ekspedisie van 1864. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2015.

Warner, Esra. Generaals in grys: Lewe van die Konfederale bevelvoerders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959.


Price se Missouri -ekspedisie (of Price's Raid)

Sterk Price se onsuksesvolle kavalerie -aanval van September en Oktober 1864, die grootste Konfederale kavallerietaanval van die oorlog, het probeer om St. Louis te verower en Missouri vir die Konfederasie te herstel. Price het geglo dat die ekspedisie werwing sal aanmoedig, sal bydra tot die nederlaag van Abraham Lincoln tydens die presidentsverkiesing in November en moontlik die oorlog sal beëindig.

Op 19 September het Price's Army of Missouri, bestaande uit drie afdelings onder John S. Marmaduke, James F. Fagan en Joseph Shelby en 'n totaal van 12 000 man en 14 kanonne, Missouri vanuit die noorde van Arkansas binnegekom. In drie kolomme met twee afdelings, het Price 1 500 versterkte federale onder brig. Genl Thomas Ewing by Pilot Knob. Price het onwetend 'n frontale aanval op die erdstruktuur gelas en meer as 1 000 slagoffers gely. Gedurende die nag het Ewing die poeiermagasyn opgeblaas en met sy bevel ontsnap nadat hy minder as 100 slagoffers gely het.

Toe hy die volgende oggend ontdek dat Ewing ontsnap het, stuur Price Shelby en Marmaduke agterna. Maar Price het besluit om nie St. Louis te probeer vang nie weens die 4500 federale kavallerie wat onder brig. Genl. Alfred Pleasonton om Ewing te versterk, en 'n federale infanteriekorps van 8 000 man onder genl.maj. A. J. Smith, suid van St. Price het egter geglo dat die teenwoordigheid van sy weermag vrywilligers sou lok en voorraad sou bekom. Op 30 September begin Price weswaarts marsjeer, volg die suidelike oewer van die Missouri -rivier en vernietig spoorbruggies en spoor. Rekrute was yl en ongedissiplineerd. Sy trae tempo het byna 7 000 federale troepe toegelaat om Jefferson City te versterk. Teister deur Pleasonton se kavallerie, het Price die staatshoofstad omseil en weswaarts gegaan.

By Boonville het Price ongeveer 2 000 rekrute bygevoeg, wat sy totale mag op 15 000 te staan ​​bring. Baie was ongewapen en onopgelei. Plunderaars en plunderaars was volop, baie van hulle guerrilla's wat Unioniste geteiken het, veral Duitsers en Afro -Amerikaners, beide burgerlik en aangewys. Hul uitbuiting het veroorsaak dat die (Konfederale) goewerneur Thomas Caute Reynolds aan Price skryf en beweer dat hierdie verwoesting dit moeilik gemaak het om die voorlopige regering wat pro-Unie is, te vervang. Price se gereeldes het wapens gesoek in Glasgow en Sedalia. Gedurende die stadige opmars het die federale kavalerie met Price se agterhoede onder Marmaduke, wat die omslagtige 500-wa-toevoerstrein en ongeveer 5 000 beeste beskerm het, geraak.

Genl.maj. William Rosecrans, departementele bevelvoerder, het kragte gemobiliseer om Price se weermag vas te trek. Pleasonton se kavalerie het Price se agterkant ingedruk om sy vordering te vertraag, terwyl Smith se infanterie van St. Generaal -majoor Samuel R. Curtis het meer as 15 000 troepe naby die grens van Kansas versamel. Op 15 Oktober het hy drie brigades, meestal militia, in Missouri beveel onder genl.maj. James G. Blunt. Die meeste het naby die Big Blue River, ses myl oos van Kansas City, gebly, terwyl 2 000 gereelde mense Lexington beset het. Hierdie afsonderlike federale magte het meer as twee keer Price se mag getel.

In die suidewaartse rigting het Price gehoop om sy mag tussen Blunt en Smith te plaas en het elkeen om die beurt verslaan voordat hy Curtis se burgermag aangeskakel het. Op 19 en 21 Oktober het Shelby Blunt se hoofeenhede by Lexington en die Kleinblou Rivier teruggedruk en vorentoe beweeg na die hoofmag by die Big Blue, gevestig op die steil wesoewer. Na 'n skerp skermutseling waarin die superieure vuurkrag van die federale die opkomende Konfederate kortliks teruggedruk het, dreig Price se voortreflike getalle spoedig om albei die federale flanke te draai, wat hulle dwing om terug te trek.

Op 22 Oktober, na drie ure se gevegte by Byram's Ford, die hoofoorgang van die Big Blue, het Price se flankbeweging stroomop oor die rivier gedruk en op Curtis se regterkant neergeval. Toe die federale onttrek het, het Shelby se afdeling die Big Blue oorgesteek en na Westport gery, suid waarvan Curtis gedurende die nag sy lyn hervorm het.

In die agterkant van Price steek Pleasonton die Little Blue oor, ry Marmaduke se afdeling deur Independence en stoot dit amper tot by die Big Blue. Met sy leër wat die gevaar loop om deur konvergerende kolomme vasgevang te word en sy groot wa -trein wat gevang is toe hy die steil drif oorsteek, besluit Price om die federale naby Westport aan te val in die hoop om suidwaarts te beweeg.

Teen dagbreek op 23 Oktober het Shelby se afdeling die federale posisie aangeval. Gedurende etlike ure se gevegte het opponerende ruiters in die grasheuwels langs Brush Creek aangeval en teengejaag terwyl Pleasonton Marmaduke, wat Byram se Ford verdedig het, aangerand het. Beide kante het groot verliese gely. Middag het die troepe van Marmaduke, uit ammunisie, oor die prairie gery met federale ruiters agterna. Honderde van Marmaduke se mans is tydens die terugtog gevange geneem. Terselfdertyd val Curtis en Blunt die regterflank van Shelby aan, amper die Konfederale lyn breek, en federale druk deur die laaste verdedigde vordering by Hickman's Mill.

Die Slag van Westport was die skouspelagtige ondergang van Price as die grootste en laaste groot aksie wat in die Trans-Mississippi-streek plaasgevind het.

Aan drie kante ingedruk, beveel Price 'n terugtog suidwaarts, en laat Shelby om 'n agterwag te beveg. Terwyl Marmaduke en Fagan na Little Santa Fe stroom, het slegs Shelby se volgehoue ​​verdediging Price se weermag van totale vernietiging gered. Die Slag van Westport was die skouspelagtige ondergang van Price as die grootste en laaste groot aksie wat in die Trans-Mississippi-streek plaasgevind het. Presiese ongevalle is nie beskikbaar nie, maar ramings is byna 1 500 dood en gewond aan elke kant.

Toe Price suidwaarts langs die Militêre Pad vlug, het die swaarwaentrein die federale agtervolgers toegelaat om die vlugtende Konfederate in Kansas, by Trading Post, Mine Creek en Marmiton River, 60 myl suid, in te haal. Na die drie ontmoetings waartydens Marmaduke gevang is (by Mine Creek), verbrand Price byna 'n derde van sy waens. Die skermutseling duur voort, en Blunt haal die terugtrekkende kolom van Price in Newtonia, Missouri, op 28 Oktober in. Shelby het weer daarin geslaag om die oprukkende federale te verdryf. Die volgende dag het Rosecrans alle troepe in sy departement van Missouri herroep en Curtis gelaat met slegs 3 500 kavalleries wat die jaagtog voortgesit het. Price versprei sy magte gou en marsjeer deur die Indiese gebied (die huidige Oklahoma) na Texas.

Toe die kolom op 2 Desember terugkeer na Laynesport, Arkansas, het Price se weermag 1,488 myl afgelê. Missouri het onder beheer van die Unie gebly, Lincoln is herkies, en die Konfederale saak aan die westelike grens is 'n ernstige knou toegedien. Die Missouri -ekspedisie het nie een van sy doelwitte bereik nie, met 'n verlies van 'n geskatte 4000 man, meestal weens verlatenheid.


Prys, Sterling

Sensus (VS) / Amerikaanse Buro vir die Sensus. Bevolkingsskedules. Mikrofilm. FHL.

Daaglikse Columbus Enquirer. Columbus, GA. 1858 �.

Castel, Albert. Generaal Sterling Price en die burgeroorlog in die Weste. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, 1968, 1996.

Missouri Bureau of Vital Statistics, Register of Sterfgevalle, 1850 �, vol. 1, bl. 748, mikrofilm 2,308,263, US en Canada Record Collection, FHL.  

Amerikaanse en Kanada rekordversameling. FHL.

1860 Amerikaanse sensus, Keytesville, Chariton Co., MO, 231 Sobel en Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors, 2: 884 Castel, General Sterling Price,.  

Sensus (VS) / Amerikaanse Buro vir die Sensus. Bevolkingsskedules. Mikrofilm. FHL.

Sobel, Robert en John W. Raimo, reds. Biografiese gids van die goewerneurs van die Verenigde State, 1789 �. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

Castel, Albert. Generaal Sterling Price en die burgeroorlog in die Weste. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, 1968, 1996.

Biografiese gids van die Amerikaanse kongres, 1774 �, 1482.  

Biografiese Gids van die Amerikaanse Kongres, 1774 �: Die Kontinentale Kongres, 5 September 1774, tot 21 Oktober 1788, en die Kongres van die Verenigde State van die Eerste tot die Ses en Tagtigste Kongres, 4 Maart 1789, tot 3 Januarie , 1961, Inklusief. Washington DC: Amerikaanse drukkantoor, 1961.

Chariton Co., MO, Aktes, 1826 �, vol. C, bl. 237, 11 Oktober 1832, mikrofilm 975,963, U.S. and Canada Record Collection, FHL Sobel en Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors, 2: 884.  

Amerikaanse en Kanada rekordversameling. FHL.

Sobel, Robert en John W. Raimo, reds. Biografiese gids van die goewerneurs van die Verenigde State, 1789 �. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

“ Te koop, ” Richmond (VA) Enquirer, 28 Okt. 1831, [1].  

Richmond Enquirer. Richmond, VA. 1815 �.

Randolph Co., MO, Huweliksrekords, 1829 �, vol. A, bl. 15, mikrofilm 975,183, US en Canada Record Collection, FHL.  

Amerikaanse en Kanada rekordversameling. FHL.

Sobel en Raimo, Biografiese gids van die goewerneurs, 2: 884.  

Sobel, Robert en John W. Raimo, reds. Biografiese gids van die goewerneurs van die Verenigde State, 1789 �. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

JS History, vol. C-1, 856 Lucy Mack Smith, History, 1845, 268.  

JS History / Smith, Joseph, et al. Geskiedenis, 1838 �. Vols. A-1 𠄿-1 (oorspronklik), A-2 𠄾-2 (billike kopie). Historikus se kantoor, geskiedenis van die kerk, 1839 �. 1882. CHL. CR 100 102, bokse 1 𠄷. Die geskiedenis vir die tydperk na 5 Augustus 1838 is saamgestel na die dood van Joseph Smith.

Smith, Lucy Mack. Geskiedenis, 1845. CHL. MS 2049. Ook beskikbaar by josephsmithpapers.org.

1840 Amerikaanse sensus, Chariton Co., MO, 317.  

Sensus (VS) / Amerikaanse Buro vir die Sensus. Bevolkingsskedules. Mikrofilm. FHL.

�th of General Sterling Price, ” Daily Columbus (GA) Enquirer, 5 Okt. 1867, [2] Conard, Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 5: 229.  

Daaglikse Columbus Enquirer. Columbus, GA. 1858 �.

Conard, Howard L., red. Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 'n kompendium van geskiedenis en biografie vir gereed verwysing. 6 vols. New York: Southern History, 1901.

“Prys, Sterling, ” in Harper Encyclopedia, 612.  

Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography. Geredigeer deur Trevor N. Dupuy, Curt Johnson en David L. Bongard. New York: Harper Collins, 1992.

Sobel en Raimo, Biografiese gids van die goewerneurs, 2: 884.  

Sobel, Robert en John W. Raimo, reds. Biografiese gids van die goewerneurs van die Verenigde State, 1789 �. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

Sobel en Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors, 2: 884 Conard, Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 1: 230.  

Sobel, Robert en John W. Raimo, reds. Biografiese gids van die goewerneurs van die Verenigde State, 1789 �. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

Conard, Howard L., red. Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 'n kompendium van geskiedenis en biografie vir gereed verwysing. 6 vols. New York: Southern History, 1901.

Sobel en Raimo, Biographical Directory of the Governors, 2: 884 Conard, Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri, 1: 230.  

Sobel, Robert en John W. Raimo, reds. Biografiese gids van die goewerneurs van die Verenigde State, 1789 �. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Meckler Books, 1978.

Conard, Howard L., red. Ensiklopedie van die geskiedenis van Missouri, 'n kompendium van geskiedenis en biografie vir gereed verwysing. 6 vols. New York: Southern History, 1901.

“General Sterling Price, ” Idaho Tri-Weekly Statesman, 14 Feb. 1867, [2].  

Idaho Tri-Weekly Statesman. Boise, ID. 1864 �.

𠇍ood van General Sterling Price, ” Daily Columbus (GA) Enquirer, 5 Okt. 1867, [2].  


Bygevoeg 2020-11-14 14:50:38 -0800 deur Keri Denise Jackson

Ближайшие родственники

Oor genl.maj Sterling Price, (CSA)

Sterling Price (20 September 1809 – 29 September 1867) was 'n prokureur, planter en politikus van die Amerikaanse deelstaat Missouri, wat as die 11de goewerneur van die staat gedien het van 1853 tot 1857. Hy dien ook as 'n Verenigde Brigadegeneraal van die State tydens die Mexikaanse-Amerikaanse oorlog, en 'n hoofgeneraal van die Konfederale weermag in die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog. Price is veral bekend vir sy oorwinnings in New Mexico en Chihuahua tydens die Mexikaanse konflik, en vir sy verliese tydens die Battles of Pea Ridge en Westport tydens die Burgeroorlog. in die oorlog het Price sy oorblywende troepe na Mexiko geneem eerder as om oor te gee, sonder om diens te soek by die keiser Maximillian daar. Uiteindelik keer hy terug na Missouri, waar hy in armoede sterf en in St.

Sterling & Old Pap & quot Price is gebore naby Farmville, in Prince Edward County, Virginia, uit 'n familie van Walliese oorsprong. Sy ma was Elizabeth Williamson, en sy pa was Pugh Price, wie se voorouer John Price in 1584 in Brecknock, Wallis, gebore is en hom in die Virginia -kolonie gevestig het. Price het die Hampden-Sydney College in 1826 en 1827 bygewoon, waar hy regte studeer het en by die hof naby sy huis gewerk het. Hy is opgeneem in die advokaat van Virginia en het 'n regspraktyk gevestig.

In die herfs van 1831 verhuis Price en sy gesin na Fayette, Missouri. 'N Jaar later verhuis hy na Keytesville, Missouri, waar hy 'n hotel en handel dryf. Op 14 Mei 1833 trou Price met Martha Head van Randolph County, Missouri. Hulle het sewe kinders, waarvan vyf oorleef het tot volwassenheid Edwin Williamson, Herber, Celsus, Martha Sterling en Quintus.

Tydens die Mormoonse Oorlog van 1838 het Price gedien as lid van 'n afvaardiging wat uit Chariton County, Missouri, gestuur is om aangemelde steurnisse tussen die Heiliges van die Laaste Dae en die anti-Mormoonse skares in die westelike deel van die staat te ondersoek. His report was favorable to the Mormons, stating that they were not guilty, in his opinion, of the charges levied against them by their enemies. Following the Mormon capitulation in November 1838, Price was ordered by Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs to Caldwell County with a company of men to protect the Saints from further depredations following their surrender. He was elected to the Missouri State House of Representatives from 1836�, and again from 1840�, and was chosen as its speaker. He was then elected as a Democrat to the 29th United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1845, to August 12, 1846, when he resigned from the House to participate in the Mexican-American War.

Price raised the Second Regiment, Missouri Mounted Volunteer Cavalry and was appointed its colonel on August 12, 1846. He marched his regiment with that of Alexander Doniphan to Santa Fe, where he assumed command of the Territory of New Mexico after his superior, Gen. Stephen W. Kearny, departed for California. Price served as military governor of New Mexico, where he put down the Taos Revolt, an uprising of Native Americans and Mexicans in January 1847.

President James K. Polk promoted Price to brigadier general of volunteers on July 20, 1847.[6] Price was named as military governor of Chihuahua that same month, and commanded 300 men from his Army of the West at the Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales on March 16, 1848, where he defeated a Mexican force three times his size. The battle was the last battle of the war, taking place days after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo had been ratified by the United States Congress on March 10. Although reprimanded by Secretary of War William L. Marcy for his action and ordered to return with his army to New Mexico, Price was never court-martialed or otherwise punished he was honorably discharged on November 25, 1848, and went home to Missouri a hero.

Back in his home state, Price became a slave owner, and farmed tobacco on the Bowling Green prairie. Popular due to his war service, he was easily elected Governor of Missouri, serving from 1853 to 1857. During his tenure, Washington University in St. Louis was established, the state's public school system was restructured, the Missouri State Teachers' Association was first initiated, the railroad network was expanded and a state geological survey was created.[8] Although the state legislature passed an act during his tenure to increase the governor's salary, he refused to accept any more remuneration than he had been receiving prior to the law's adoption.[9] After the expiration of his term, Price became the state's Bank Commissioner from 1857 to 1861. He also secured construction of a railroad through his home county, which now forms part of the Norfolk and Western Railway.

At the beginning of the Civil War, Price was personally opposed to secession. He was elected presiding officer of the Missouri State Convention on February 28, 1861, which voted against the state leaving the Union. Things changed drastically, however, when Francis Preston Blair, Jr. and Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Lyon seized the state militia's Camp Jackson at St. Louis. Outraged by this act, Price threw in his lot with the Southerners, and was assigned by pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson to command the newly reformed Missouri State Guard in May 1861, leading his young recruits (who affectionately nicknamed him "Old Pap") in a campaign to secure Missouri for the Confederacy. One of the major engagements in this endeavor was fought at Lexington, where Price defeated Colonel James A. Mulligan's Union force in the "battle of the hemp bales" and secured the city for the South𠅊lbeit only temporarily, as it turned out. An even greater victory was won by Price at the Battle of Wilson's Creek, which resulted in Lyon's death and temporary Confederate ascendancy in southwestern Missouri. However, growing Union numbers and power in the state ultimately negated his triumph.

Pea Ridge, Iuka, and Corinth

Still operating as a Missouri militia general (rather than as a commissioned Confederate officer), Price was unable to agree with his Wilson's Creek colleague, Brigadier General Benjamin McCulloch, as to how to proceed following the battle this led to the splitting of what might otherwise have become a sizable Confederate force in the West. Price and McCullough became bitter rivals, leading to the ultimate appointment of Maj. Gen. Earl Van Dorn as overall commander of the Trans-Mississippi district. Van Dorn reunited Price's and McCullough's formations into a force he named the Army of the West, and set out to engage Unionist troops in Missouri under the command of Brig. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis. Now under Van Dorn's command, Price was commissioned in the Confederate States Army as a major general on March 6, 1862.

Outnumbering Curtis's forces, Van Dorn attacked the Northern army at Pea Ridge on March 7𠄸. Although wounded in the fray, Price pushed Curtis's force back at Elkhorn Tavern on the March 7, only to see the battle lost on the following day after a furious Federal counterattack. Price next crossed the Mississippi River to reinforce Gen. P. G. T. Beauregard's army at Corinth, Mississippi. Price was able to seize the Union supply depot at nearby Iuka, but was driven back by Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans at the Battle of Iuka on September 19, 1862. A few weeks later, on October 3𠄴, Price (under Van Dorn's command once more) was defeated with Van Dorn at the Second Battle of Corinth.

Van Dorn was replaced by Maj. Gen. John C. Pemberton, and Price, who had become thoroughly disgusted with Van Dorn and was eager to return to Missouri, obtained a leave to visit Richmond, the Confederate capital. There, he obtained an audience with Confederate President Jefferson Davis to discuss his grievances, only to find his own loyalty to the South sternly questioned by the Confederate leader. Price only barely managed to secure Davis's permission to return to Missouri—minus his troops. Unimpressed with the Missourian, Davis pronounced him "the vainest man I ever met."

Price was not finished as a Confederate commander, however. He contested Union control over Arkansas in the summer of 1863, and while he won some of his engagements, he was not able to dislodge Northern forces from the state. In early 1864, Confederate General Edmund Kirby-Smith, in command of the Western Louisiana campaign, ordered General Price in Arkansas to send all of his infantry to Shreveport. Confederate forces in the Indian Territory were to join Price in the endeavor. General John B. Magruder in Texas was instructed to send infantry toward Marshall, Texas, west of Shreveport. General St. John R. Liddell was instructed to proceed from the Ouachita River west toward Natchitoches. With a force of five thousand, Price reached Shreveport on March 24. However, Kirby-Smith detained the division and divided it into two smaller ones. He hesitated to send the men south to fight Union General Nathaniel P. Banks, whom he believed outnumbered the Confederate forces, a decision which drew the opposition of General Richard Taylor. But the western campaign was nearing its conclusion.

Price's Raid in the Trans-Mississippi Theater, 1864

Despite his disappointments in Arkansas and Louisiana, Price managed to convince his superiors to permit him to invade Missouri in the fall of 1864, hoping to yet seize that state for the Confederacy or at the very least imperil Abraham Lincoln's chances for reelection that year. Confederate General Kirby Smith agreed, though he was forced to detach the infantry brigades originally detailed to Price's force and send them elsewhere, thus changing Price's proposed campaign from a full-scale invasion of Missouri to a large cavalry raid. Price amassed 12,000 horsemen for his army, and fourteen pieces of artillery.

The first major engagement in Price's Raid occurred at Pilot Knob, where he successfully captured the Union-held Fort Davidson but needlessly slaughtered many of his men in the process, for a gain that turned out to be of no real value. From Pilot Knob, he swung west, away from St. Louis (his primary objective) and towards Kansas City, Missouri and nearby Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Forced to bypass his secondary target at heavily-fortified Jefferson City, Price cut a swath of destruction across his home state, even as his army steadily dwindled due to battlefield losses, disease and desertion. Although he defeated inferior Federal forces at Glasgow, Lexington, the Little Blue River and Independence, Price was ultimately boxed in by two Northern armies at Westport, located in today's Kansas City, and forced to fight against overwhelming odds. This unequal contest, known afterward as "The Gettysburg of the West", did not go his way, and he was forced to retreat into hostile Kansas. A new series of defeats followed, as Price's battered and broken army was pushed steadily southward towards Arkansas, and then further south into Texas, where Price remained until the war ended. Price's Raid would prove to be his last significant military operation, and the last significant Confederate campaign west of the Mississippi.

Some of Price's notable battles during the Civil War include (listed in order of occurrence, and indicating whether he was in overall command and where the battle was won or lost):

Battle of Carthage, Missouri not in command won Battle of Wilson's Creek, Missouri in command won First Battle of Lexington, Missouri in command won Battle of Pea Ridge, Arkansas not in command lost Battle of Iuka, Mississippi in command lost Second Battle of Corinth, Mississippi not in command lost Battle of Helena, Arkansas not in command lost Battle of Prairie D'Ane, Arkansas in command lost Battle of Pilot Knob, Missouri in command lost—Price took the fort, but the Union force escaped Battle of Glasgow, Missouri in overall command, though not commanding on the battlefield won Battle of Little Blue River, Missouri, in command won Second Battle of Independence, Missouri in command won Battle of Westport, Missouri in command lost Battle of Mine Creek, Kansas in command lost

Instead of surrendering at the war's end, Price led what was left of his army into Mexico, where he unsuccessfully sought service with the Emperor Maximilian. This episode of Price's life later became an inspiration for the John Wayne and Rock Hudson film The Undefeated. Price became leader of a Confederate exile colony in Carlota, Veracruz, but when the colony proved to be a failure, he returned to Missouri.

While in Mexico Price started having severe intestinal problems, which grew worse in August 1866 when he contracted typhoid fever. Impoverished and in poor health, Price died of cholera (or "cholera-like symptoms") in St. Louis, Missouri. The death certificate listed the cause of death as "chronic diarrhea".

On October 3, 1867, the funeral of Price was held at the First Methodist Episcopal Church (on the corner of Eighth and Washington), and the funeral precession, with his body carried by a black hearse drawn by six matching black horses, was the largest funeral precession in St. Louis up to that point. He was buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery.

His daughter-in-law Celeste Bolton (nພ Price), wife of his son Celsus, died in childbirth with her newborn child, on the same day as Price. She was the daughter of Thomas Lawson Price.

Modern assessment of Price's Missouri campaign

In his paper "Assessing Compound Warfare During Price's Raid", written as a thesis for the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Major Dale E. Davis postulates that Price's Missouri Raid failed primarily due to his inability to properly employ the principles of "compound warfare", which requires an inferior power to effectively utilize regular and irregular forces in concert (such as was done by the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong against the French and Americans during the Vietnam War) to defeat a superior army. He also blamed Price's slow rate of movement during his campaign, and the close proximity of Confederate irregulars to his regular force, for this outcome.

Davis observes that by wasting valuable time, ammunition and men in his relatively meaningless assaults on Fort Davidson, Glasgow, Sedalia and Boonville, Price offered Union General Rosecrans time he might not otherwise have had to organize an effective response. Furthermore, he says, Price's insistence on guarding an ever-expanding wagon train of looted military supplies and other items ultimately became "an albatross to [his] withdrawal".[14] Price, said Davis, ought to have used Confederate bushwhackers to harass Federal formations, forcing the Unionists to disperse significant numbers of troops to pursue them over wide ranges of territory—which in turn would have reduced the number of effectives available to fight against Price's main force. Instead, Price kept many guerrillas close to his army, even incorporating some into his ranks, largely negating the value represented by their mobility and small, independent formations. This in turn allowed Union generals to ultimately concentrate a force large enough to trap and defeat Price at Westport, effectively ending his campaign.

While the scope of Davis' research is necessarily limited to Price's Missouri expedition, it does provide some overall insight into his tactical and strategic mindset, together with a sense of some of his strengths and weaknesses as a general. While devoted to the Southern cause, Price generally saw Confederate military operations solely in terms of liberating his home state of Missouri. Although he achieved victories during all phases of the war, his strategically most important battles (other than Wilson's Creek) all ended in defeat.

The CSS/USS General Sterling Price

During the Civil War, a wooden river steamer built at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1856 as the Laurent Millaudon was taken into Confederate service and renamed the CSS General Sterling Price. Participating in actions near Fort Pillow, Tennessee on May 10, 1862, she damaged two Federal gunboats before being temporarily put out of action. The General Price was sunk during the Battle of Memphis, raised, repaired, and served in the Union Navy under the name USS General Price although she was still referred to as the "General Sterling Price" in Federal dispatches. As a Union ship, she served in the Vicksburg and Red River campaigns. Price was sold for civilian use after the war.

Sterling Price Camp #145, Sons of Confederate Veterans (SCV), in St. Louis is named in Price's honor.

There is a statue of Price in Keytesville, Missouri, and a Sterling Price Museum. The tiny city park where it stands is named after him, and the town's chapter of the SCV Post #1743 annually hosts the Sterling Price Days, with a festival and parade.

Another monument to Price stands in the Springfield National Cemetery (Springfield, Missouri). Dedicated August 10, 1901, the bronze figure honors all Missouri soldiers and General Price. It was commissioned by the United Confederate Veterans of Missouri.

Price's exodus to Mexico together with that of his subordinate, General Jo Shelby, provided one inspiration for the plot of the Western film The Undefeated, starring John Wayne and Rock Hudson.

In the 1968 novel True Grit by Charles Portis and the subsequent 1969 feature film based on the novel and its 1975 sequel Rooster Cogburn one of the characters is a brindle cat named "General Sterling Price".


Stirling Price, 1809-1867

He served as his county&rsquos representative in the state legislature from 1836-38 and 1840-44. During his second spell in the legislature he was speaker of the house. In 1844 he was elected to Congress, but only served for two years before resigning in order to volunteer for service in the Mexican War.

He started the war as colonel of the 2nd Missouri Infantry regiment. By the end of the war he had risen to the rank of brigadier-general, and had served as military governor of Chihuahua. After the war he returned to Missouri politics, being elected governor of the State in 1852.

Eight years later that post was about to be held by Claiborne Fox Jackson, a pro-slavery pro-southern politician. As the secession crisis gathered momentum, Jackson began to agitate for Missouri to join with the south. At the end of 1860, as South Carolina seceded, Jackson persuaded the state legislature to organise the election of a convention, hoping that the voters of Missouri would agree with him, and elect a pro-secession convention. They let him down, and on 18 February elected a conditionally pro-Union convention.

Price was chosen to be the president of the convention. Under his leadership, it voted 89 to 1 against Missouri leaving the Union, but 89 to 6 against any attempt to coerce those states that did wish to secede. This was a blow to Jackson&rsquos hopes, but did not stop his plotting. The convention adjourned on 22 March, and soon afterwards Jackson asked Price to take command of the state militia.

Jackson&rsquos target was the U.S. Arsenal at St. Louis, one of the largest in the country. At this point it contained 60,000 muskets, enough to equip a huge army by the standards of the time. The arsenal was commanded by Captain Nathaniel Lyon, soon to become one of the Union cause&rsquos first heroes. In turn he found active and able support from Frank P. Blair, the leader of Missouri&rsquos unionists.

The crisis at St. Louis came after the bombardment of Fort Sumter. On 15 April, President Lincoln issued his call for volunteers. For many conditional unionists this was a step too far. Jackson hoped to use this to move Missouri towards secession. There was already a force of state militia near to St. Louis, under General D. M. Frost, but they had no artillery, which would have made any assault on the arsenal very difficult. Jefferson Davis was more than willing to come to Jackson&rsquos aid, arranging to send guns seized further south to help at St. Louis.

Lyon foiled Jackson&rsquos plan. On 26 April he moved most of the guns into safely Unionist Missouri, only keeping enough to arm Blair&rsquos pro-Union Missouri militia. This should have been enough to frustrate Jackson&rsquos plans, but Lyon was not finished. On 10 May he surrounded and effectively arrested the frustrated militiamen in the camp just outside the city. As the prisoners were marched back into St. Louis, a pro-Confederate mob gathered. Someone shot one of Lyon&rsquos officers. His nervous soldiers fired on the crowd, killing twenty eight civilians.

This was a disaster for the Union cause in Missouri. It pushed many conditional Unionists into the southern camp. Amongst them was Stirling Price. He must already have been moving that way, for he was opposed to any attempts to force the south back into the Union, but the violence at St. Louis tipped him over the edge. Jackson, Price and the State Legislature met at Jefferson City, and continued to prepare for war.

There was one more chance for relative peace in Missouri. On 11 June Price and Jackson met with Lyon and Blair at the Planters&rsquo House in St. Louis. The meeting did not go well, ending with Lyon storming out after declaring &lsquothis means war&rsquo.

Price&rsquos war began badly. On 17 June Lyon, now a Brigadier-General, forced Price and the militia to retreat from Jefferson City. They moved west, along the Missouri River, to Boonville. On 17 June Price&rsquos men were defeated in a minor skirmish at Boonville, and forced to retreat south. By the start of July he had been forced all the way into the south west corner of the state, close to the Arkansas border. Although he now had 8,000 men, rather more that Lyon&rsquos 5,500, but the Union force was well armed and equipped, while many of Price&rsquos men were actually unarmed! However, at Wilson&rsquos Creek Price was joined by another 5,000 men under General Ben McCulloch. Lyon was now badly outnumbered, but he still decided to attack.

On 10 August Price won a significant victory. Lyon split his force, hoping to outflank Price. Instead, Price was able to defeat both attacks. The flank attack, under Franz Sigel, failed first. Price was then able to turn against Lyon&rsquos main force. Lyon was killed in the fighting. His defeated army was forced to pull back to Rolla, in the centre of the state.

Price decided to strike back into the north. His target was Lexington, one of largest cities on the Missouri River. It was poorly defended, and after a short siege (18-20 September) was captured. However, Price could not maintain his position against a strong Union counterattack, and was soon forced to pull back to Springfield in the south of the state. Early in 1861 a Federal advance under Brigadier-General Samuel R. Curtis forced him to pull back even further, into northern Arkansas.

There he once again joined up with McCulloch. By now the two men detested each other - each was dedicated more to their own state than to what the other saw as the general good of the Confederacy. Some semblance of unity was provided by the appointment of Earl van Dorn to overall command west of the Mississippi. On 1 March he took command in person, and prepared to launch an ambitious counterattack that he hoped would liberate Missouri, capture St. Louis and even stop the Federal advance along the Mississippi.

His first problem was what to do about Curtis. The outnumbered Federal army had pulled back the Pea Ridge, on the edge of the Ozark Plateau, and prepared to receive an attack. Van Dorn settled on an ambitious plan based on a double out-flanking manoeuvre. McCulloch was to attack the Federal right, while Van Dorn and Price would continue and attempt to attack Curtis from the rear. The resulting battle of Pea Ridge or Elkhorn Tavern did not go according to plan. On 7 March McCulloch&rsquos attack was defeated. McCulloch and his second in command were both killed in the fighting. Price&rsquos march to the rear was detected, and Curtis was able to hold off the large Confederate forces in his rear for the rest of the day. The next morning Curtis had his army back together again, and easily drove off a final Confederate attack.

The defeat at Pea Ridge ended Price&rsquos immediate hopes of returning to Missouri. Events east of the Mississippi soon called him away even from Arkansas. The spring and summer of 1862 saw the Confederacy loss control of most of the Mississippi. April had been particularly disastrous. A hastily gathered Confederate army had come close to success at Shiloh (6-7 April) before being forced to pull back in the face of Federal reinforcements. New Orleans had fallen to Federal forces at the end of the month. Corinth had been evacuated at the end of May, Memphis fell in June. In an attempt to cope with this series of disasters, Van Dorn and Price were called east.

Price was given command of the Army of the West, based at Tupelo, Mississippi. By the autumn he had an army 15,000 strong, as did Van Dorn, further west at Vicksburg. Braxton Bragg, their commander east of the Mississippi, had led a large army east, where he launched an invasion of Kentucky. Price and Van Dorn were meant to cooperate by launching a similar invasion of western Tennessee. The Federal commander, General Halleck, had split his army into several small detachments to deal with the newly conquered territories. Price and Van Dorn were faced locally by forces under General Rosecrans, under the command of U.S. Grant.

The Confederate plan was for an attack on Corinth. On 13 September Price captured Iuka, twenty miles south east of Iuka. Grant decided to launch a counterattack, making an attempt to trap Price in Iuka. Price detected this move, and despatched half of his army to deal with Rosecran&rsquos flanking move. The second part of the Federal force, under General Ord, was meant to attack when it heard the sound of fighting, but unusual weather conditions caused an acoustic shadow, which prevented the sound reaching them. Despite this, Price was unable to defeat Rosecrans, who held his ground for two hours. Luckily for Price, he failed to block all of the roads south out of Iuka, and overnight Price was able to make his escape.

From Iuka he travelled west and joined with Van Dorn. The combined army was now just over 20,000 strong. Van Dorn was the senior commander. He decided to continue with the attack on Corinth, even though Rosecrans now had a similar sized army, and would be fighting on the defensive. The attack went in on 3 October (Battle of Corinth). The following day, Van Dorn and Price&rsquos men managed to break into the city, but their attack ran out of steam in the street fighting that followed. Eventually Federal reinforcements began to arrive, and the Confederate commanders were forced to retreat. The next day the retreating Confederate armies were nearly trapped at Hatchie Bridge (5 October), but managed to find an escape route in time, and returned to relative safety further south.

The next year Price was posted back across the Mississippi. Edmund Kirby Smith had been put in command of the Confederate trans-Mississippi. Price was transferred to Arkansas, to serve under General Theophilius H. Holmes. Price found a state that was on the brink of a Federal conquest. The north west of the state had been secured for the Union at the Battle of Prairie Grove (7 December 1862). At the start of 1863 Arkansas Post had been captured (10-11 January 1863), giving Union forces easy access to the heart of the state. Along the Mississippi every significant position was in Federal hands.

Holmes and Kirby Smith were under great pressure to do something to help the besieged garrison at Vicksburg. They decided to launch an attack on Helena, Arkansas, a comparatively weakly held Union enclave on the west bank of the Mississippi. Price had command of one division in the army that attacked Helena on 4 July 1863. His division was given the task of capturing Graveyard Hill, in the centre of the Union defences. He succeeded in this, but the rest of the attack failed, and Price&rsquos men came under heavy fire from the entire Union line, and from a gunboat on the Mississippi. Eventually Holmes was forced to order an withdrawal from this vulnerable position. Price&rsquos division had suffered very heavily in the fighting, losing 156 of the 173 Confederate dead and 587 of the 687 wounded.

After the failure at Helena, a Federal invasion of Arkansas was almost inevitable. That attack was launched at the start of August 1863. Major-General Frederick Steele, with 12,000 men, was soon approaching Little Rock. Price was temporarily in command, with 8,000 men, in the absence of Holmes. He attempted to stop Steele east of Little Rock, but his position on the north bank of the Arkansas River was outflanked on 10 September (Bayou Forche or Little Rock), and once again Price was forced to retreat to the south west corner of a conquered state.

Events were to give him one more chance in Missouri. The Red River campaign of 1864 was one of the more disastrous Federal attacks of 1864. Part of the plan had been for General Steele to advance south from the Arkansas River towards Shreveport, Louisiana, where it would meet up with General Banks&rsquos, moving in from the south. However, when Banks was defeated, Steele found himself exposed to attack by Price, who had recently been reinforced, giving him an army possibly 12,000 strong. Price pressed Steele all the way to Jenkin&rsquos Ferry, on the Saline River. There Steele was forced to turn and fight, inflicting a heavy defeat on Price (30 April 1864). Steele was able to continue his retreat to Little Rock unopposed.

Price&rsquos real target was St. Louis, Missouri. Like so many other Confederate leaders in other states, Price believed that Missouri would rise for the Confederacy the moment there was an army in the state. There was certainly some evidence for continuing Confederate support in the state. Gangs of guerrillas roamed the state. Amongst them were many of the most famous in the war, men such as William Quantrill and &lsquoBloody Bill&rsquo Anderson. Price was probably the military head of an organisation known as the &lsquoOrder of American Knights&rsquo, which was expected to lead a Confederate uprising in the state. Some of their Union counterparts were very nearly as ruthless.

Price and his army crossed into northern Arkansas at the start of September and were soon in Missouri. He had between 12,000 and 15,000 men, mostly veterans. Quantrill and Anderson raised chaos around the state, although the Order of American Knights proved to be a very feeble force. However, the biggest obstacle to Price&rsquos success was that by this stage in the war the Union could easily raise enough troops to overwhelm him.

He received his first setback at Pilot Knob (26-27 September), close to St. Louis, where his attack was held off by a garrison only 1,000 strong. Overnight on 27 September that force withdrew to St. Louis. After a brief look at the defences of St. Louis, Price turned west, following the line of the Missouri to the state capitol, at Jefferson City, but he was repulsed there as well. His next target was Kansas, but once again enough Federal forces could be found to hold him off, close to the Kansas border. Finally, on 23 October he was forced to turn back south. When he finally reached relative safety in Arkansas, his force had been reduced to 5,000 men.

Price&rsquos raid was one of the more disastrous undertaken by Confederate forces. Not only was his own army almost destroyed, but most of the guerrilla bands that had been plagued Missouri had joined with it, and left the state when it did. &lsquoBloody Bill&rsquo Anderson had been killed. Quantrill&rsquos gang was dispersed, and he himself killed while travelling east (he planned to assassinate Lincoln). Price did not report it in quite those terms, focusing instead on the distance he had marched (1,434), the number of battles and skirmishes he had fought (43) and the number of prisoners he had captured (over 3,000). Still, he had at least managed to get some of his men back, and forced the Union to divert men and resources from other areas.

The end of the war was now rapidly approaching. In 1865 Price retreated to Texas, and then to Mexico. His refuge there was short-lived. In 1866 the French intervention in Mexico came to an end when the Emperor Maximilian was deposed. Price returned to the United States, dying the next year.

Price was one of many men to argue with Jefferson Davis during the war. After one conference Davies described him as the &lsquovainest man he had ever met&rsquo, although this was after a meeting in which Price had threatened to resign when he had been refused permission to move west of the Mississippi. Davis&rsquos well known preference for West Point graduates may help to explain why Price rarely held independent command, although the early failure of his and Governor Jackson&rsquos attempts to get Missouri into the Confederacy probably also contributed. He was a competent General, although his most famous victory at Wilson&rsquos Creek had as much to do with his opponent&rsquos weaknesses as his own strengths. His final campaign, the Missouri raid, was a disaster, but by the end of 1864 the Confederacy had no choice but to take such risks.


Sterling Price Quick Facts

Sterling is of English
origin and means
“pure, high quality”.

Vital Stats

Birthday:
September 14, 1809
Birth Name:
Sterling Price
Birthplace:
Farmville, Virginia
Date of Death:
September 29, 1867
Cause: Cholera
Place of Death:
St. Louis, Missouri
Nationality: American
Ancestry: Welsh
Occupation before Civil War:
Politician (Missouri state
legislator, U.S. Representative,
Governor of Missouri, Missouri
bank commissioner), planter,
military officer in
Mexican American War.
Occupation during Civil War:
General in Confederate Army
Occupation after the Civil War:
Businessman

Major Battles

Wilson’s Creek, Pea Ridge,
Iuka, Corinth, Helena, Camden Expedition,
Price’s Missouri Expedition (various
battles including Westport and
Mine Creek).

Father: Pugh Williamson Price
(1775-1848)
Mother: Elizabeth Williamson
Brother: Edwin Price (September 10, 1795-January 24, 1858)
Sister: Pamela Price (August 11, 1800-February 19, 1891)
Brother: Robert Price (December 1, 1803-February 10, 1873)
Brother: John Randolph Price May 4, 1811-May 3, 1880)

Married: Martha Head (May 2, 1810-March 5, 1970
on May 14th, 1833.

Son: Edwin Williamson Price (June 10, 1844-January 4, 1908)
Daughter: Amanda Price (1837-1838)
Son : Celsus Price (March 1, 1841-September 5, 1909)
Son: Heber Price (January 31, 1844-June 1, 1868)
Daughter: Martha Sterling Price (April 23, 1846-March 25, 1912)
Son: Quintus Price (September 21, 1851-January 19, 1943)
Son: Athol Price (December 5, 1856-November 2, 1860)


The CSS/USS General Sterling Price [ edit | wysig bron]

USS General Price on1 January 1864

During the Civil War, a wooden river steamer built at Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1856 as the Laurent Millaudon was taken into Confederate service and renamed the CSS General Sterling Price. Participating in actions near Fort Pillow, Tennessee on May 10, 1862, she damaged two Federal gunboats before being temporarily put out of action. Die General Price was sunk during the Battle of Memphis, raised, repaired, and served in the Union Navy under the name USS General Price although she was still referred to as the "General Sterling Price" in Federal dispatches. As a Union ship, she served in the Vicksburg and Red River campaigns. Price was sold for civilian use after the war.


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